SOPC Exam 1 - CH. 1
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Applied Research (p.4)
Research designed to investigate real-world problems or improve the quality of life.
A Priori Prediction (p. 13)
A prediction made about the outcome of a study before data is collected
Basic Research (p. 3)
Research designed to understand psychological processes without regarding for whether that understanding will be immediately applicable in solving real-world problems.
Conceptual Definition (p. 16)
An abstract, dictionary-type definition (as contrasted with an operational definition.)
Correlational Research (p. 23)
Research designed to examine the nature of the relationship between two measured variables.
Deduction (p. 14)
The process of reasoning from a general proposition to a specific implication of that proposition; for ex - hypotheses are often deduced from theories.
Descriptive Research (p. 22)
Research designed to describe in an accurate & systematic fashion the behavior, thoughts, or feelings of a group of participants.
Empirical Generalization (p. 14)
A hypothesis that is based on the results of previous studies.
Empiricism (p. 8)
The practice of relying on observation to draw conclusions about the world.
Evaluation Research (p. 4)
The use of behavioral research methods to assess the effects of programs on behavior; also called program evaluation.
Experimental Research (p. 24)
Research designed to test whether certain variables cause changes in behavior, thoughts, or feelings; in an experiment, the researcher assigns participants to conditions and manupulates at least one independent variable.
Falsifiability (p. 14)
The requirement that a hypothesis must be capable of being falsified.
Hypothesis (p. 14)
A proposition that follows logically from a theory; also, a prediction regarding the outcome of a study.
Induction (p. 14)
The process of reasoning from specific instances to a general propostion about those instances; for example, hypotheses are sometimes induced from observed facts.
Methodological Pluralism (p. 15)
The practice of using many different research approaches to address a particular question.
Model (p. 13)
An explanation of how a particular process occurs.
Null Finding (p. 22)
Failing to obtain a statistically significant effect in a study.
Operational Definition (p. 16)
Defining a construct by specifying precisely how it is measured or manipulated in a particular study.
Post Hoc Tests (p. 13)
An explanation offered for a set of findings after the data are collected and analyzed.
Pseudoscience (p. 10)
Claims of knowledge that are couched in the trappings of science but that violate the central criteria of scientific investigation, such as systematic empiricism, public verification, and testability.
Public Verification (p. 9)
The practice of conducting research in such a way that it can be observed, verified, and replicated by others.
Quasi-experimental Design (p. 24)
A research design in which the researcher cannot assign participants to conditions and/or manipulate the independent variable; instead, comparisons are made between groups that already exist or within a single group before and after a quasi-experimental treatment has occured.
Strategy of Strong Inference
Designing a study in such a way that it tests competing predictions from two or more theories.
Theory (p. 11)
A set of propositions that attempt to specify that interrelationships among a set of constructs.
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