Histology Test 3

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Histology Test 3
2010-12-13 01:12:15
Endocrine Lymphatic system male female reproductive

Fun facts about the the histological study of the Endocrine, Lymphatic and Reproductive system
Show Answers:

  1. What kind of lymphocytes would you find in the thymus?
  2. What is the largest organ in the body?
    Diffuse lymphoid tissue
  3. Name the APCs of the lymphoid system
    • 1. Macrophages
    • 2. Dendritic cells
    • 3. Langerhan cells
    • 4. M cells
    • 5. B cells
    • 6. Follicular dendritic cells
  4. What type of lymphocytes predominate in the blood?
    • T lymphocytes
    • (B lymphoctyes are found in blood too, but most are T-lymphocytes)
  5. In which areas of the lymphoid system can you find macrophages?
    • Thymus
    • Bone marrow
    • Spleen
    • Lymph nodes
    • Tonsils
    • (NOT IN BLOOD)
  6. What kind of lymphocytes does the bone marrow produce?
    B lymphocytes and NK cells
  7. Name each type of cell involved in the immune system
    • 1. Lymphocytes
    • 2. Supporting cells
    • 3. Antigen-presenting cells
    • 4. Blood granulocytes
  8. What blood granulocytes are involved in the immune response?
    • Neutrophils
    • Eosinophils
    • Basophils
  9. What type of immune response is a cytotoxic T-cell involved in?
    Adaptive immune response
  10. What type of immune response is an NK cell involved in?
    Innate immune response
  11. What is the main function of a B lymphocyte?
    • Carries IgM membrane receptors
    • Differentiates into plasma cells when activated by antigens
  12. What is the main function of a memory B-lymphocyte?
    Activated B cell that is primed to responed more readily to subsequent exposure to the same antigen
  13. What is the main function of a T-cytotoxic lymphocyte?
    • Carries TCRs
    • Recognizes MHC I
    • Produces Perforins and other proteins that kill other cells
  14. What is the main function of a T-helper lymphocyte?
    • Carries TCR
    • Stimulates activation of other T cells and B cells
  15. What are the main functions of T-memory lymphocytes?
    • Carries TCRs
    • Primed to respond more readily to subsequent exposure to same antigen
  16. What are the main functions of NK cells?
    • Lacks T and B cell receptors
    • Attacks virus infected cells and tumor cells without previous exposure
  17. What are gamma/ delta T-lymphocytes and where are they found?
    • They have no CD4 or CD8 markers
    • They develop in Thymus and migrate to various epithelial tissues
    • They do not recirculate between blood and lymphatic organs
    • Function as the first line of defense
  18. Where are CD3 markers found?
    On the surface of all T-cells
  19. What are the functions of CD3 cells?
    Forms complex with TCR and activates T cell
  20. Where are CD4 markers found?
    The cell surface of T-helper cells
  21. What is the target cell of CD4 markers?
    MHC II on antigen presenting cells
  22. What are the functions of CD 4 markers?
    Activates T-helper cells
  23. Where are CD8 markers found?
    The cell surface of cytotoxic T-helper cells and Suppressor T cells
  24. What is the target cell of CD8 markers?
    MHC I on antigen presenting cells
  25. What are the functions of CD8 markers?
    activates cytotoxic T-cells
  26. Where are CD28 markers found?
    The cell surface of T-helper cells
  27. What is the target cell of CD28 markers?
    B7 on antigen presenting cells
  28. What are the functions of CD28 markers?
    Assists in activation of T-helper cells
  29. Where are CD40 markers found?
    The cell surface of B-cells
  30. What are the target cells of CD40 markers?
    CD40 receptor molecules on activated helper T-cells
  31. What are the functions of CD40 markers?
    Permits T helper cell to activate B cell to proliferate into B memory cells and plasma cells
  32. Where are TCRs located?
    The surface of T-lymphocytes
  33. What do TCRs do?
    They interact with CD markers and when they bind to MHC they trigger a cascade of events
  34. What do MHC I molecules do?
    • On all cells in body
    • Decided whether something is self or non-self
    • present peptides for recognition by CD8+ T cells
    • Act as targets for cellular elimination
  35. What do MHC II cells do?
    • Expressed only on antigen presenting cells
    • (Macrophages, dendritic cells, reticular cells)
    • Present foreign peptides to CD4+ lymphocytes
  36. N terminus of an immunoglobin contains
    • antigen-binding region
    • Fab domain
  37. C terminud of an immunoglobin contains
    • cell-binding domains
    • Fc domain
  38. Location of IgAs
    • In body secretions and reproductive system of females
    • Bound to B-cells
  39. Function of IgAs
    • Defense against proliferation of microorganisms
    • Helps defend against microbes
  40. Location of IgDs
    B-cells (on the surface of mature B-lymphocytes)
  41. Function of IgDs
    Act as antigen receptors (together with IgMs)
  42. Location of IgE
    On mast cells and basophils
  43. Function of IgEs
    • Stimulates mast cells to release histamine, heparin, leukotrienes, etc
    • Responsible for anaphaletic hyperactivity
  44. Location of IgGs
    • Does not have to be bound to a cell
    • If it is bound to a cell it is bound to:
    • Macrophage, B-cell, NK cell, neutrophil, eosinophil
  45. Functions of IgG
    • Secondary immune response
    • Oponisizing pathogens
    • Activate NK cells
    • Crosses the placental barrier
  46. Location of IgM
    • Does not have to be bound
    • B-cells (when bound)
  47. Functions of IgM
    • Most efficient in binding antigens
    • (decavalent instead of bivalent when in free solution)
    • Activates macrophages
    • Antigen receptor of B-lymphocytes
  48. Binding of IgM
    • When free in solution it is pentemeric
    • When bound to a membrane it is dimeric
  49. How long does the primary adaptive response take?
    Take about 2 weeks to form antibodies from the time the antigen is introduced
  50. How long does the secondary adaptive response take?
    Takes about 7-10 days for the body to be able to fight off the antigen or bacterial infection
  51. What Immunoglobin is most commonly found in blood?
  52. What does the humoral response of the adaptive immune system do?
    Produces soluable Immunoglobins and memory cells
  53. What does the cell-mediated response of the adaptive immune system involve?
    Cytotoxic targeting and memory cells
  54. What proteins are involved in B-lymphocyte activation?
    • TCRs
    • MHC II
    • CD 3, CD4 and CD40 markers
    • ILs 2, 4, 5 and 6
  55. What proteins are involved in T-lymphocyte activation?
    • TCR
    • MHC I
    • CD 3 CD4 and CD8
    • IL 2
  56. Which lymphatic organs have a cortex and a medulla?
    Thymus and Lymph nodes
  57. Which lymphatic organs have lymphoid nodules?
    • Peyer's patches
    • Lymph nodes
    • Tonsils
    • Spleen
  58. Which lymphatic organs have a capsule?
    • Thymus
    • Lymph nodes
    • Spleen
    • Tonsil (partial capsule)
  59. Which lymphatic organs have cords and sinuses?
    • Lymph nodes
    • Spleen
  60. What lymphatic organs have high endothelial veins?
    • Peyer's patches
    • Tonsils and Lymph nodes
  61. What is a unique characteristic of the thymus?
    Hassal's corpuscules
  62. What is a unique characteristic of Peyer's patches?
    located only in the wall of the ileum
  63. What are unique characteristics of lymph nodes?
    cortical nodules and subscapular sinus
  64. What are unique characteristics of the spleen?
    Central artieries and red pulp
  65. What type of lymphocytes are found in germinal centers?
  66. What happens in germinal centers?
    • Clonal proliferation of activated B lymphocytes
    • They will leave GC to form plasma cells elsewhere
  67. What are M cells?
    Follicular associtated epithelium
  68. Two items you will NOT find in the thymus
    • B lymphocytes
    • Germinal centers
  69. Where does T-cell education and selection occur?
    In the cortex of the thymus
  70. What provides the structural meshwork of the thymus?
    Epthelial reticular cells
  71. What do epithelial reticular cells do?
    • Expose MHCs to differentiating T-cells
    • Help form the blood-thymus barrier
    • Lobulate the tissue (along with the CT septa [Se]).
  72. What eliminates T-cells that do not "pass insepection"?
  73. What are Hassal's corpuscules?
    Whorls of epithelial reticular cells
  74. Where are Hassal's corpuscle's located?
    In the medulla of the thymus
  75. What kind of epithelium would you find on the apical side of a tonsil?
    stratified squamous
  76. Where are germinal centers in the lymph node found?
    Outer cortex
  77. What kind of fibers provide structural support of the lymphoid organs?
    • Reticular fibers
    • Type III collagen
  78. Where do lymphocytes re-enter the lymphatic efferent system?
    medullary cords
  79. What are high endothelial venules?
    Post capillary venules in lymph nodes that facillitate extravasation of lymphocytes from the blood to the parenchyma of the lymph node

    Cuboidal epithelium
  80. What proteins mediate lymphocyte passage in HEVs?
  81. Where are venous sinuses?
    In the red pulp of the spleen
  82. What does the pineal gland secrete?
  83. What does the parathyroid gland secrete?
    Parathyroid hormone
  84. What do the pancreatic islets secrete?
    Insulin and glucagon
  85. What does the hypothalmus produce?
    • ADH
    • Oxytocin
  86. What does the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete?
    • ACTCH
    • Follicle stimulationf Hormone (FSH)
    • Thyroid Stimulationg Hormone (TSH)
    • Prolactin (PRL)
    • Growth Hormone (GH)
    • Lutenizing Hormone (LH)
    • MSH
  87. What does the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland secrete?
    RELEASE of oxytocin and ADH
  88. What does the thyroid gland secrete?
    • Thyroxine (T4)
    • Triiodothyronine (T3)
    • Calcitonin (CT)
  89. What does the suprarenal medulla secrete?
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
  90. What does the suprarenal cortex secrete?
    • Cortisol
    • Corticosterone
    • Aldosterone
    • Androgens
  91. What are the three molecular types hormones can come in?
    • Amino acid derivatives
    • Peptide hormones
    • Lipid derivatives:
    • steroids and eicosanoids
  92. What are hormones that are derivatives of tyrosine?
    • Thyroxine
    • Catecholamines
  93. What are catecholamines?
    • Derivatives of tyrosine (amino acid hormones)
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
  94. What hormone is a derivative of tryptophan?
  95. What hormones are amino acid derivatives?
    • Melatonin
    • Thyroxine
    • Epinephrine
    • Norepinephrine
    • Dopamine
  96. What hormones are glycoproteins?
    • TSH
    • LH
    • FSH
  97. What hormones are short polypeptides or small proteins?
    • ADH, Oxytocin
    • ACTH, GH, PRL, MSH
    • Insulin, glucagon
    • PTH
    • Calcitonin
  98. What are the categories of peptide hormones?
    Glycoproteins, small proteins and polypeptides
  99. What are the types of lipid hormones?
    • Eicosanoids
    • Steroids
  100. What are eicosanoids?
    Lipid derivatives of arachidonic acid
  101. What hormones are steroid hormones?
    • Androgens
    • Estrogens
    • Progestins
    • Mineralcorticoids
    • Glucocorticoids
  102. What is the principal of amplification?
    The ability of a response to trigger many second messengers to amplify the effect of a hormone
  103. How are hormones and cytoplasmic second messengers linked?
  104. What are G-proteins
    Membrane bound enzyme complex that binds GTP
  105. What are three types of endorcrine system reflexes?
    • 1. Humoral stimuli
    • 2. Hormonal stimuli
    • 3. Neural stimuli
  106. What does a humoral stimuli do?
    Changes the content of the extracellular fluid
  107. What does a hormonal stimuli mean?
    The right hormone arrives on the scene
  108. What is a neural stimuli?
    The right neurotransmitter shows up at correct sites
  109. What organs use a simple endocrine reflex system?
    Heart, pancreas, parathyroid glands and digestive tract
  110. What is a simple endocrine reflex?
    Involves only one hormone and endocrine cells respond directly to changes in the extracellular fluid
  111. What are the functions of the hypothalmus?
    • 1. Secrete regulatory hormones to control adenohypophysis
    • 2. Production of ADH and oxytocin
    • 3. Control of sympathetic output to suprarenal medulla
  112. What makes the hypothalmo-hypopohysial structurally different from the regular blood system?
    It goes from capillaries to veins to capillaries for hormonal release
  113. What does the hypothalmohypophysial portal system accomplish?
    Gets the releasing hormones to their target without dilution
  114. What does growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) do?
    Stimulates secretion and gene expression of GH by somatotropes
  115. What does somatostatin do?
    Inhibits secretion of GH by somatotropes
  116. What does dopamine do?
    inhibits secretion of PRL by lactotropes
  117. What does corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) do?
    • Stimulates secretion of ACTH by corticotropes
    • Stimulates gene expression for POMC in corticotropes
  118. What does gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) do?
    Stimulates secretion of LH and FSH by gonadotropes
  119. What does thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) do?
    • Stimulates secretion and gene expression of TSH by thyrotropes
    • Stimulates secretion and synthesis of PRL
  120. ADH
    • Antidiruetic hormone
    • Synthesized by the hypthalmus
    • Released by the neurohypohysis
    • Target cell are the kidneys
  121. What does the hypothalmohyppophysial tract do/ contain?
    • Transports oxytocin and ADH to the pars nervosa
    • contains unmyelinated axons of neurosecretory cells
  122. What are Herring bodies?
    Granules in the pars nervosa that contain neurosecretory accumulations
  123. What are the supporting cells of the pars nervosa?
  124. What are the two types of cells in the parathyroid gland?
    Chief cells and oxyphil cells
  125. What do chief glands produce?
    Parathyroid hormone
  126. What does parathyroid hormone do?
    Raises blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclasts to resorb bone
  127. What are the three layers of the adrenal cortex?
    • 1. Zona glomerulosa
    • 2. Zona fasciculata
    • 3. Zona reticularis
  128. What is produced in the zona glomerulosa?
    Mineralcorticoids (aldosterone)
  129. What is produced in the zona fasciculata?
    • Glucocorticoids
    • (cortisol and corticosterone)
  130. What is produced in the zona reticularis?
    weak androgens
  131. What stimulates hormone production of the adrenal cortex?
  132. What are the two types of cells found in the adrenal medulla?
    • 1. Chromaffin cells
    • 2. Sympathetic ganglion
  133. What do Chromaffin cells do?
    Synthesize, store and secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine
  134. What stimulates the release of catecholamines?
    Intense emotional stimuli and is mediated by preganglionic sympathetic fibers
  135. What kind of epithelium is germinal epithelium covering the ovaries?
    simple cuboidal epithelium
  136. Primordial follicles are composed of...
    a primary oocyte with a single layer of flat follicular cells
  137. Primary follicles are composed of...
    Primary oocyte with surrounding zona pellucida
  138. Multilayer follicular cells contain...
    several layers of follicular cells known as granulosa cells and a theca layer
  139. Graffian follicle contains
    antrum that is completely filled with liquor folliculi and cumulus oophorus
  140. Graffian follicles secretes...
    Inhibin to shut off other developing follicles
  141. Cumulus oophorus
    • In a graffian follicle
    • Small mound of granulosa cells that project into the antrum
  142. Theca interna cells manufacture...
    androgens which are transferred to granulosa cells and converted to estrogen
  143. Where are androgens secreted by the theca interna turned into estrogen?
    granulosa cells
  144. What is the remnant of the corpus luteum called?
    Corpus albicans
  145. The corpus luteum produces
  146. What does progesterone do?
    • Promotes the development of endometrium
    • Inhibits the release of LH by supressing the LHRH
  147. What does Gonadotropin releasing hormone do?
    Stimulates secretion of LH and FSH
  148. What does FSH do?
    Stimulates the growth and development of seconday ovarian follicles and the appearence
  149. LH surge does what?
    • promotes formation of corpus luteum
    • triggers ovulation of seconday oocyte
  150. In the absense of pregnancy which hormones are not present?
    • HCG and LH
    • Corpus luteum will atrophy