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What is Frederich Griffith responsible for?
The incorporation of genetic material into a cell thereby changing its pheneotype.
What are Hershy and Chase responsible for?
They found out that DNA was being past from generation to generation not protien by using bacterophage.
What does the semiconservitive model of DNA repliction mean or say?
Double staranded DNA is replicated by first seperating the double stranded DNA.
What enzyme replicates DNA?
A new DNA strand is always going to be synthesized in which direction?
5'---->3'(5 prime to 3 prime).
What does 5'---->3' mean?
Carbons on the pentose sugar.
Two stands of double stranded exhibit antiparallel orientation, what does that mean?
They have oppisite 5'--->3' direction.
What are Francis Cricks contributions?
- DNA double helix
- Central Dogma of biology
What is central dogma refering to and is it an absolute rule?
- It is a very generalized explanation of gene expression(DNA-->RNA-------->Polypeptide).
- No(not an absolute rule).
Are there some exceptions to central dogma?
Transcription vs. Translation?
- Transciption is the synthisis of RNA from a DNA template
- Translation is using messanger RNA as the source for the genetic code or the instruction to produce polypeptide
Do prokayotes and enkayotes do translation and transcription the same?
- Coupled transcription and translation(prokaryotes)
- Transcription happens in the nucleus and translation begins in the cytosol(eukaryotes).
What are the steps of transcription?
- Initiation (bring everything together that it needs).
- Elongation(RNA polymerase is going to add the RNA nucleotide to the transcription).
- Termination(stops transcription).
What are transcription factors?
Small protien that are neccassay for the binding of the RNA polymerase to the promoter.
What the genetic code and its attributes?
- The nuclaic acid RNA.
- Triplet code or nucleotide triplets.
What are codons and there function?
- Messanger RNA nucleotide triplets.
- They specify for amino acid.
With respect to the coding of amino acid there are two attributes?
- Unambiguity(clear, or certain)each codon is specific for only one amino acid.
- Redundancy, theres more then one possible codon for those amino acids.
Start codon vs. stop codon?
- Start codons say start translating, they specify for an amino acid.
- Stop codons dont specify for an amino acid they just say stop translating.
What is the reading frame?
It is how the messanger RNA is going to be divided into codons.
Type of nuclaic acid in which the genetic code is defined , contains the instructions for polypeptide.
Transfers amino acids from cytosol and brings them to site of translation.
For each tRNA it contains only one nucleotide triplet.
What is wobble?
The relaxation of those bas pairing rules, your not getting strict base paring(redundancy).
In what direction is the new RNA transcript transcribed?
5'--->3'(5 prime to 3 prime).
What is aminoayl-tRNA synthetase?
It catalises the reaction that adds an amino acid to a tRNA.
What is the initiator tRNA?
- Different from other tRNA.
- Binds to start codon.
- Its the only RNA that comes in during the initiating phase of translation.
How is the eukaryotic primary transcript edited or processed to mRNA?
- First step you add 5' cap to the the 5' end?
- Second step you cut out introns(no coding region)then splice together exons(exspressable portion of gene or mRNA sequence).
What are polyribosomes?
A multiable number of ribosomes attached to an mRNA during translation
What is a retrovirus?
A particular type of a RNA virus which is an exception to central dogma, and the preform reverse transcription.
What is reverse transcription?
- RNA to produce DNA
- Which requires the enzyme reverse transciptase.
Where would a provirus be located?
- Inside a host cells genome
- which is viral DNA
What are mutations?
Heritable changes in the genetic code.
What are some mutations?
- Spontaneous, mutation that is a biological error.
- Induced mutation, means it was exsposed to something like a chemical or radiation.
- Frameshift, change in the reading frame
- substition(synonymous no change)(Nonsynonymous did involve a change.
- Nonsense, a premature stop codon
- Missence, going to end up with a different amino acid.
What are species concepts?
Different ideas of what a species is.
Why are Charles Darwin and Alfred Russell Wallace rememberd?
They independently came up with the concept of natural selection.
Define natural selection?
The mechinism of evolution proposed by Darwin.
What is artificial selection?
Selection by humans of traits that are desirable in plants and animals.
What is the synthetic theory?
Interaction between evolution and genetics within a population.
What are some of the different lines of evidence in support of evolution mentioned in class?
- Fossil evidence.
- Comparitive and developemental anatomy.
- Bio geography.
What is an index fossil?
Fossil restricted to a narrow period of geologic time and found in the same sedimentary layers in different geographic areas.
What type of materials are the basis for a radiometric dating?
What is a half life?
The amount of time it takes for half the sample to decay from the parential isotopes to the duaghter isotopes.
What is the differnce between a homology and homplasy?
- Homology indicate evolutionary relationships.
- Homoplasy adatation features.
What is Alfred Wegener responsible for?
- Continental Drift
- Therory of the super continent Pangea
Are continental drifts and plate tectonics the same?
- Plate tectonics is an updated version of Wegeners continental drift theory.
What is population genetics?
Study of evolution whithin population, how population require genetic changes and variation.
What is a gene pool?
All the genetic materail within a population.
What is microevolution?
Evolutionary changes whithin a species.
Hardy Wienberg equallibrium?
- Allele frequencys do not change from generation to generation in a large population.
- If its not evolving its IN Hardy Wienberg.
What are the conditions of Hardy Wienberg?
- Random mating
- Large population
- No mutations
- No migrations
How does Hardy Wienberg rekate to synthetic Theory?
They both talk about evolution and the change in allele frequency.
What is inbreeding?
Mating between closely related individuals(violates Hardy Wienberg).
What is inbreeding depression?
The phenomemom in which inbred offspring of genetically similiar individuals have a lower fitness.
What is going on during assortative mating?
Sexual reproduction in which individuals pair nonrandomly- select mate based on phenotype(violates Hardy Wienberg).
How does a mutation affect Hardy Wienberg?
- At first little or no effect.
- Only if mutation persists in a population does it affect it.
What does genetic drift refer to and what types are there?
- Some sort of random fluctuation in allele frequency.
- Bottleneck, starts with a large population and the bulk of the population dies off.
- Founder effect, individuals leave a large population and start new population so there allele frequancy will be different from the population they left, eventually.
How does genetic drift(founder effect, bottleneck)effect Hardy Wienberg?
By changing the allele and genotype frequency from the original population.
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