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What effect does nicotine have on health?
none - it has addictive effects only
What are the chemical properties of nicotine?
- it's a base
- water soluble
- lipid soluble
- 31% un-ionized at physiological pH - able to cross cell membranes
- inhalation rate of absorption comparable to IV administration
How fast can nicotine reach the brain?
What determines the oral absorption of nicotine?
- the pH of the tobacco:
- cigs have little absorption (pH 5.5)
- pipe/cigar/smokeless have rapid absorption (pH 8.5)
What is the half-life of nicotine?
What does it take to achieve accumulation of nicotine?
regular smoking for 6-8h
When is the concentration of nicotine in the blood highest?
at the end of the cigarette
What are the pharmacologic effects of nicotine?
stimulant and depressant actions
What neurotransmitters are released by nicotine?
What effects are produced by nicotine stimulation of the CNS?
- relief of anxiety
- improved task performance
What effects are produced by nicotine stimulation of the cardiovascular system?
- increased HR
- increased BP
- increased CO
- coronary vasoconstriction
- cutaneous vasoconstriction
What effects other than those of the CNS and cardiovascular does nicotine have?
- decreased appetite
- increased metabolic rate
- skeletal muscle relaxation
What are the effects of DA after nicotine stimulation?
- appetite suppression
How fast can tolerance be developed to nicotine?
- a single day
- can regain some sensitivity by abstaining overnight
What are the sx of nicotine w/d?
- difficulty concentrating
- excessive eating
- wt gain
- tobacco craving
- decreased HR
What effects does nicotine have on P450?
- induces 1A2
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