Psychology Final

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Psychology Final
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2010-12-12 18:15:15
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Psychology Final
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  1. Personality
    A person’s characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling that distinguishes one person from another.
  2. Psychoanalysis
    • -- Freud’s term for his theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders
    • -- Its central idea is that unconscious forces shape human thought and behavior
  3. Three Levels of Consciousness
    • Conscious
    • Preconscious
    • Unconscious
  4. Conscious
    The thoughts, feelings, sensations, or memories of which a person is aware at any given momento
  5. Preconscious
    The thoughts, feelings, and memories that a person is not consciously aware of at the moment but that may be easily brought to consciousnesso
  6. Unconscious
    • -The primary motivating force of human behavior that have never been conscious, containing:·
    • --Repressed memories·
    • --Instincts·
    • --Wishes·
    • --Desires
  7. Freud’s proposed concepts for looking at personalityo
    • Id
    • Ego
    • Superego
  8. Id
    • Unconscious system of personality which:
    • - Operates on the pleasure principle
    • - Source of libido (Psychic energy that fuels the entire personality)
  9. Ego
    • The logical, rational, largely conscious system of personality:
    • -- Operates according to the reality principle
    • -- One function is to satisfy the id’s urges
    • -- Determines appropriate times, places, and objects, of gratification of the id’s wishes
  10. Superego
    • Moral component of the personality:
    • -- The conscience
    • -- Initially reflects only the parents’ expectations of what is good and right
    • -- Expands over time incorporating the broader social world
    • -- Judges behaviors, thoughts, feelings, and wishes
  11. Defense Mechanism
    • -- A means used by the ego to defend against anxiety and to maintain self-esteem
    • -- All people use defense mechanisms to some degree
  12. Types of Defense Mechanisms
    • Repression
    • Projection
    • Regression
  13. Repression
    • -- The most frequently used
    • -- Removes painful or threatening memories, thoughts, perceptions from consciousness and keeps them from consciousness
  14. Projection
    -- Attribute your own undesirable traits, thoughts, behavior, or impulses to another person
  15. Regression
    -- Reverting to a behavior that might have reduced anxiety at another stage of development
  16. Psychosexual Stages of Development:
    • Sex Instinct
    • Fixation
    • Oedipus Complex
  17. Sex Instinct
    • -- Present at birth
    • -- Most important factor in personality
  18. Fixation
    -- Arrested development at a psychosexual stage occurring because of excessive gratification or frustration at that stage
  19. Oedipus Complex
    • -- Conflict in which the child is sexually attracted to the opposite-sex parent
    • -- May feel hostility toward the same-sex parent
    • -- Unresolved adults may have guilt, anxiety, sexual problems, and difficulties relating to members of the opposite sex
  20. Psychology is indebted to Freud for:
    • -- Introducing the idea that conscious forces may motivate behavior
    • -- Emphasizing the influence of early childhood experiences on later development
  21. Criticism of Freud's theories:
    They defy scientific testing
  22. Neo-Freudians
    • Carl Jung
    • Alfred Adler
    • Karen Horney
  23. Carl Jung
    • - Disagreed with Freud's belief that:
    • -- sexual instinct in the main factor in personality
    • -- personality is almost completely formed in childhood
  24. Three Parts of Personality
    • Ego
    • Personal unconscious
    • Collective unconscious
  25. Ego
    conscious component of personality
  26. Personal unconscious
    • - Layer of unconscious that:
    • -- contains all the thoughts, perceptions, and experiences accessible to conscious
  27. Collective unconscious
    the most inaccessible layer of the unconscious
  28. Self
    full development of the personality
  29. Extraversion
    tendency to be outgoing, adaptable, and sociable
  30. Introversion
    tendency to be focused inward, be reflective, retiring and non-social
  31. Alfred Adler
    • -- Drive to overcome inferiority acquired in childhood motivates most behavior
    • -- Inferiority complex - inferiority feelings so strong that they prevent personal development
  32. Individual Psychology
    • -- Another name for Adler’s theory
    • -- Creative self - A conscious, self-aware component of an individual’s personality
  33. Karen Horney
    • Neurotic personality
    • Feminine psychology
  34. Neurotic personality
    • -- Stressed importance of early childhood experiences, cultural, and environmental influences on personality
    • -- Personality could continue to develop through-out life
  35. Feminine Psychology
    -- Overcoming irrational beliefs about the need for perfection required for the psychological health of both men and women
  36. Humanistic Psychology
    • -- People are assumed to have natural tendency toward growth and realization of their fullest potential
    • -- Inspired study of positive personal qualities:
    • - Altruism, love, and acceptance
    • - Cooperation and self-esteem
    • -- Difficult to test scientifically
  37. Abraham Maslow (a):
    • -- Motivational factors are at the root of personality
    • -- Hierarchy of needs:
    • - Physiological needs
    • - Safety needs
    • - Belonging and esteem needs
    • - Self-actualization: developing one’s fullest potential
  38. Abraham Maslow (b):
    • -- Self-actualizers
    • - Accurately perceive reality
    • - Are comfortable with life
    • - Accept themselves, others, and nature
    • - Feel a need to devote their life to some larger good
    • - Are inner-driven, autonomous, and independent
    • - Can laugh at themselves
  39. Carl Rogers (a):
    • -- Conditions of worth set up by our parents
    • - Positive regard hinges on parental conditions
    • - Gain positive regard by denying our true selves, inhibiting behavior, denying or distorting perceptions, and closing off parts of our experiences
    • -- Unconditional positive regard
    • - Unqualified caring and nonjudgmental acceptance
  40. Carl Rogers (b):
    • -- Development of self-esteem
    • - View self in terms of strengths and weaknesses
    • - High self-esteem
    • - When strengths lie in areas we value and believe to be important
    • - Children and adolescents form ideas about competence from:
    • - Academics
    • - Sports, fine arts
    • - Other areas influenced by parents, teachers, and peers
  41. Trait
    -- A personal characteristic that is stable across situations and is used to describe or explain personality
  42. Gordon Allport:
    -- Cardinal trait --
    • -- A trait so pervasive and outstanding that almost every act seems traceable to its influence
    • -- A person may be known or identified by that trait
  43. Raymond Cattell
    • Surface traits
    • Source traits
  44. Surface traits
    observative qualities of personality
  45. Source traits
    deeper, more general, underlying personal factors
  46. Eysenck's Three Factor Model: P.E.N.
    • Psychoticism
    • Extraversion
    • Neuroticism
  47. Hans Eysenck Five Factor Theory
    • Extraversion vs. Inversion
    • Neuroticism
    • Conscientiousness
    • Agreeableness
    • Openness to experience
  48. Five Factors: Origins and Stability
    • Heredity & Environment:
    • -- Genes influence extroversion and neuroticism more than any other dimension of the Big Five
    • -- Heredity strongly influences personality
  49. Individualist cultures
    U.S. - Emphasis is placed on individual, rather than on group, achievement
  50. Collectivist cultures
    Asian - Define themselves and their interests via group membership
  51. Albert Bandura
    • Self-efficacy
    • High self-efficacy
    • Low self-efficacy
  52. Self efficacy
    -- Perception of ability to perform competently whatever is being attempted
  53. High self-efficacy
    Approach new situations
  54. Low self-efficacy
    Expect failure
  55. Julian Rotter
    • Internal locus of control
    • External locus of control
  56. Internal locus of control
    See themselves in control of their behavior and its consequences
  57. External locus of control
    • -- See fate, luck, or chance in control of behavior and consequences
    • -- Are less likely to change behaviors due to reinforcement
    • - Do not see reinforcers tied to their actions
  58. Interviews
    structured interviews include prearranged questions and formats
  59. California Psychological Inventory (CPI)
    • --Valuable for predicting:
    • - Behavior
    • - School achievement
    • - Leadership and executive success
    • - Effectiveness of police, military personnel, and student teachers
  60. Projective Test:
    • -- A personality test in which people:
    • - Respond to inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations
    • - Respond to incomplete sentences
    • - Project their inner thoughts, feelings, fears, or conflicts

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