Chem unit 5
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The covalent bonds that results from sharing valence electrons.
Is formed when two or more atoms bond covalently.
Single covalent bonds:
- When only an atom shares only one pair of electrons.
- 2 single covalent bonds: H2O
- 3 single covalent bonds: NH3
- 4 single covalent bonds: CH4
Double covalent bonds
when 2 pairs f electrons are shared between two atoms.
Triple covalent bonds:
when three pairs of electrons are shared between two atoms. (N2)
- it is the distance from the center of one nucleus to the center of another nucleus of two bonded atoms. The closer the stronger the bond.
- A single bond is weaker than a double bond. And a double bond is weaker than a triple bond.
Bond dissociation Energy
- The amount of energy required to break a specific covalent bond
- The smaller the bond length, the greater the bond dissociation energy.
Naming binary molecular compounds
- It is a condition that occurs when more than one Lewis structure can be written for a molecule or ion.
- nitrite can be written in several ways.
Exceptions to the Octet Rule:
- trigonal planar
- Trigonal pyramid
- Trigonal bipyramidal
Electrons are equally shared between the atoms
EN difference and bond character
- >1.7: mostly ionic
- 0.4-1.7: polar covalent
- <0.4: mostly covalent
- 0: nonpolar covalent
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