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was a rider appended
to the Army Appropriations Act presented
to the U.S. Senate by Connecticut Republican Senator Orville
H. Platt (1827–1905) replacing the earlier Teller Amendment.
also known as the CPI or the Creel Committee, was an independent
agency of the government of the United States created to influence U.S. public
opinion regarding American participation in World War I.
Committee on PublicInformation
re-imposed the federal income following the ratification of
the Sixteenth Amendment and lowered basic tariff rates from 40% to 25%, well
below the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act of 1909.
Underwood Tariff Act
was an extension of the Monroe Doctrine
by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt in 1904.
the term used to describe the effort of the United States — particularly under
President William Howard Taft — to further its aims in Latin America and East
Asia through use of its economic power by guaranteeing loans made to foreign
an environment in which transactions between private parties are free from
state intervention, including restrictive regulations, taxes, tariffs and
political activists who bolted from the United States Republican Party by
supporting Democratic candidate Grover Cleveland in the United States
presidential election of 1884.
Political Machines - is
a disciplined political organization in which an authoritative boss or small
group commands the support of a corps of supporters and businesses (usually
campaign workers), who receive rewards for their effort
- also known as the Society of St. Tammany, the Sons of St.
Tammany, or the Columbian Order, was founded in 1786 and incorporated on May
12, 1789 as the Tammany Society. It was the Democratic Party political machine
that played a major role in controlling New York City politics and helping
immigrants, most notably the Irish, rise up in American politics from the 1790s
to the 1960s.
- was a California labor
organization led by Denis Kearney in the 1870s. The party took particular aim
against Chinese immigrant labor and the Central Pacific Railroad which employed
Workingman’s Party ofCalifornia
the name given to the alliance between the British, the French Third Republic,
and Russia after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente in 1907?
- was a 1917 diplomatic proposal from the German Empire
to Mexico to make war against the United States. The proposal was declined by
Mexico, but angered Americans and led in part to the declaration of war in
interests of certain established inhabitants of an area or nation as compared
to claims of newcomers or immigrants. It may also include the re-establishment
or perpetuation of such individuals or their culture.
- was a major dimension of the Progressive Era in the United
States. It flourished 1890-1932. Adherents argued that all aspects of the
economy, society and government were riddled with waste and inefficiency.
- refers to the cost advantages that a business obtains
due to expansion. There are factors that cause a producer’s average cost per
unit to fall as the scale of output is increased. "Economies of
scale" is a long run concept and refers to reductions in unit cost as the
size of a facility and the usage levels of other inputs increase.
Economy of scale
the movement of 2 million African Americans out of the Southern United States
to the Midwest, Northeast and West from 1910 to 1930.
- is a United States federal law
passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It prohibited any attempt
to interfere with military operations, to support America's enemies during
wartime, to promote insubordination in the military, or to interfere with
Espionage and SeditionActs
an essay written by Andrew Carnegie in 1889that described the responsibility of
philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
Gospel of Wealth
- though it
has a specific meaning, has also become a catch-all term for several different
(but related) forms of late 19th-century and early 20th-century U.S. popular
fiction, including “true” dime novels, story papers, five- and ten-cent weekly
libraries, “thick book” reprints, and sometimes even early pulp magazines.
- is one
of two United States federal laws that gave an applicant freehold title to up
to 160 acres (65 hectares or one-fourth section) of undeveloped federal land
outside the original Thirteen Colonies. The law required three steps: file an
application, improve the land, and file for deed of title.
- was a
United States Supreme Court decision that upheld the Espionage Act of 1917 and
concluded that a defendant did not have a First Amendment right to freedom of
speech against the draft during World War I. Ultimately; the case established
the "clear and present danger" test.
Schenck v. UnitedStates
- is a work
stoppage in which an employer prevents employees from working. This is
different from a strike, in which employees refuse to work.
- named for Representative Sereno E. Payne (R-NY) and Senator Nelson W. Aldrich
(R-RI), began in the United States House of Representatives as a bill lowering
certain tariffs on goods entering the United States. It was the first change in
tariff laws since the Dingley Act of 1897.
- is a community whose growth and development was strongly shaped by the use of
streetcar lines as a primary means of transportation. The earliest suburbs were
served by horse cars, but by the late 19th century cable cars and electric
streetcars, or trams, were used, allowing residences to be built further away
from the urban core of a city
- is a minor political ideology and legal
system which believes that there is a natural law, just and obvious to all,
that crosses ideologies, faiths and personal thinking, that naturally
- is a concept in
foreign affairs, which usually refers to the policy around 1900 allowing
multiple Imperial powers access to China, with none of them in control of that
Open Door Policy