Dental Anatomy

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sthomp88
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55342
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Dental Anatomy
Updated:
2010-12-12 23:03:23
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Chapter fifteen
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Overview of the dentitions
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  1. general arrangement of the natural teeth in the jaw bones
    dentition
  2. How many primary teeth are there? And what is another name for them?
    • 20
    • deciduous (or baby)
  3. How many of each of the following teeth are in baby/deciduous teeth?
    incisors
    canines
    molars
    • 8
    • 4
    • 8
  4. How many permanent teeth are there? And what is another name for them?
    • 32
    • secondary dentition (or adult)
  5. how many of each of the following teeth are in adult/secondary teeth?
    incisors
    canines
    premolars
    molars
    • 8
    • 4
    • 8
    • 12
  6. describes permanent teeth that replace primary teeth
    succedaneous
  7. describes adult teeth that do not replace baby teeth. What teeth are these?
    • non-succadaneous teeth
    • adult 3rd molars
  8. What is the function of the incisors?
    biting and cutting
  9. What is the canines function?
    pierce or tear food
  10. canines function to pierce and tear food because of their__________ shape and prominent __________
    • tapered
    • cusp
  11. what is the function of the premolars?
    • assist the molars in grinding
    • assist the canines in pearcing and tearing
  12. the premolars assist the molars because of their ___________ ________surface, and their_______cusps
    • broad occlusal
    • prominent
  13. the premolars assist the canines in piercing and tearing food with their ______
    cusps
  14. WHat is the function of the molars?
    grinding food (assisted by the premolars)
  15. Molars function in grinding food because of their________ ________ surfaces and ________ _______
    • wide occlusal
    • prominent cusps
  16. the first dentition period
    primary
  17. When does primary dentition begin?
    with the eruption of the first primary teeth (primary mandibular central incisors)
  18. the primary dentition period usually goes from ____________ to __________ of age
    • 6 months
    • 6 years
  19. When does the primary dentition period end?
    with the eruption of the first permanent tooth (usually the permanent mandibular first molar)
  20. true or false. The jaw bones are growing during the primary dentition phase?
    true
  21. the second dentition period
    mixed
  22. the mixed dentition period usually occurs from _________ to __________ years of age
    • 6
    • 12
  23. When does the mixed dentition period begin?
    with the eruption of the first permanent tooth (usually the mandibular first molar)
  24. When does the mixed dentition period end?
    with the shedding of the last primary tooth
  25. are primary crowns lighter or darker than permanent crowns? Why?
    • lighter
    • because permanent teeth have less enamel, so the yellow dentin is more visible
  26. When do the jawbones undergo their fastes and most noticeable growth? and why?
    • mixed dentition period
    • to accommodate the larger teeth of the adult
  27. Do males or females typically lose their baby teeth first?
    females
  28. Another name that the mixed dentition period is sometimes called because of the different tooth colors, sizes, and crown heights
    ugly duckling stage
  29. In many cases in the mixed dentition period, the surrounding gingiva responds to all these changes by becoming ________
    inflammed
  30. Why is oral hygiene difficult for patients during the mixed dentition stage?
    • changes may promote bacterial plaque biofilm retention
    • they are young
  31. Where is the boneloss in juvenile periodontitis seen?
    newly erupted permanent first molars and lower anteriors
  32. What is the final dentition stage?
    permanent
  33. When does the permanent dentition period begin?
    with the shedding of the last primary tooth
  34. permanent dentition usually begins at about ______ years of age
    12
  35. tooth types tend to erupt in______
    pairs
  36. If you see a child who is unusually early or late in getting their teeth, inquire about _________ ______ _______
    family dental history
  37. true or false. the permanent dentition period usually includes the eruption of all the permanent teeth, except for teeth that are congenitally missing or impacted
    true
  38. What tooth designation system is most widely used in America today?
    national or universal tooth designation system
  39. Why is the universal tooth designation system the most widely used in the US?
    because it is adaptable to electronic data transfer
  40. Describe how the teeth are designated by the universal tooth designation system for the:
    primary teeth
    permanent teeth
    • A - T starting with the maxillary right 2nd molar, then going across, down, and back across and ending at the mandibular right 2nd molar
    • 1 - 32 starting with the maxillary right 3rd molar, and moving across down and around ending at the mandibular right 3rd molar
  41. What is the tooth designation system used nationally as well as electronically?
    International standard organization designation system (ISO) by the world health organization
  42. In the ISO system, they use a 2-digit code to identify teeth, what does each digit indicate?
    • first digit= the quadrant
    • second digit= the tooth in the quadrant
  43. In the ISO system, what digits are used for the quadrants in permanent and primary dentition?
    • permanent= 1-4 in a clockwise manner
    • primary= 5-8 in a clockwise manner
  44. In the ISO system, what digits are used to indicate the tooth number in permanent and primary dentition?
    • permanent= 1-8 from median line in a distal direction
    • primary= 1-5 from median line in a distal direction
  45. What is the third method of tooth designation that is very helpful in orthodontics?
    palmer method
  46. How are the teeth designated in the Palmer method?
    • a right angle indicating quadrant
    • tooth number inside the right angle, similar to the numbering in the ISO syster
  47. What are the 3 types of tooth designation?
    • Universal tooth designation system
    • International Standards Organization designation
    • Palmer method
  48. designate the following teeth in the ISO and Palmer methods:
    B, E, G, J, K, O, R, S
    • B= 54, D]
    • E= 51, A]
    • G= 62, [B
    • J= 65, [E
    • K= 75, {E
    • O= 71, {A
    • R= 83, C}
    • S= 84, D}
  49. designate the following teeth in the ISO and Palmer methods:
    2, 6, 9, 13, 17, 23, 28, 32
    • 2= 17, 7]
    • 6= 13, 3]
    • 9= 21, [1
    • 13= 25, [5
    • 17= 38, {8
    • 23= 32, {2
    • 28= 44, 4}
    • 32= 48, 8}
  50. What system influenced the international standards organization designation system?
    Federation dentitaire internationale system (FDI)
  51. During what dentition period is jaw growth the slowest and least noticeable?
    permanent dentition period
  52. tooth-bearing portion of each jaw bone
    alveolar process
  53. bone of the socket that surrounds and supports each tooth (individual tooth socket)
    alveolus
  54. the way that the teeth of the mandibular arch come into contact with those of the maxillary arch, also used to describe the anatomical alignment of teeth and their relationship to the rest of the masticatory system
    occlusion
  55. What teeth make up the anterior teeth?
    incisors and canines
  56. What teeth make up the posterior teeth?
    molars and premolars
  57. divides each dental arch into three portions according to the relationship to the midline
    sextants
  58. sextant information material is useful in treatment plans that used ________ ________ for patient control
    local anesthesia
  59. external line at the neck or cervix of the tooth where the enamel of the crown and cementum of the root usually meet
    cementoenamel junction (CEJ)
  60. three type of CEJ meeting types and what percentages that they occur:
    • overlap= 60%
    • meet= 30%
    • gap= 10%
  61. portion of tooth covered by enamel
    anatomical crown
  62. portion of the anatomical crown that is visible and not covered by gingiva
    clinical crown
  63. true or false. The clinical crown can change over time
    true
  64. portion of the tooth covered by cementum
    anatomical root
  65. portion of the anatomical root that is visible
    clinical root
  66. What side do roots have more bulk on?
    facial surface
  67. What side to roots taper more dramatically on?
    lingual surface
  68. an imaginary line representing the long axis of the tooth, drawn in a way to bisect the root and the crown in the cervical area
    root axis line (RAL)
  69. area between adjacent tooth surfaces
    interproximal spaces
  70. area where the crowns of adjacent teeth in the same arch physically touch on each proximal surface
    contact area
  71. the greatest elevation of the tooth either incisocervically or occlusocervically on a specific surface of the crown
    height of contour, or crest of curvature
  72. a triangular shaped space between two teeth created by the sloping away of the mesial and distal surfaces and may diverge facially, lingually, occlusally or apically with loss of tissue
    embrasures
  73. The proximal CEJ curvature is greatest on the___________ and least on the___________teeth
    • anterior
    • posterior
  74. a________is formed by the junction of two crown surfaces
    line angle
  75. the junction of three crown surfaces, and another way to determine a specific area on a crown
    point angle
  76. Give two examples of line angles
    • mesiolabial
    • mesiobuccal
    • distobuccal
    • distolingual
    • mesiolingual
    • disto-occlusal
    • mesio-occlusal
    • bucco-occlusal
    • linguo-occlusal
    • distolabial
    • mesiolingual
    • distolingual
    • labioincisal
    • linguoincisal
  77. Give 2 examples of point angles
    • mesiolabioincisal
    • mesiolabio-occlusal
  78. Name the crown thirds horizontally
    • cervical
    • middle
    • incisal/occlusal
  79. name the crown thirds vertically
    • mesial
    • middle
    • distal
  80. name the root thirds
    • apical
    • middle
    • cervical
  81. what is the accepted sequencing of combining names of tooth surfaces?
    • mesial precedes distal
    • mesial and distal precede ALL other terms
    • labial, buccal, and lingual follow mesial or distal, but precede incisal or occlusal in any combination

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