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What are Erikson's tasks of adulthood?
- establish a productive work life that permits time to relate to partners and families
- choosing and committing to partner
- having and raising children
What are 5 markers of adulthood?
- living independently
- completing education
- stable job
What characterizes emerging adulthood?
- continued identity exploration
- feeling caught between adolescence and adulthood
- great self-focus
- adulthood optimism about future
what is parent's role in supporting growth?
- financial assistance
- emotional support
- instrumental support
- informational support
How can you stay close when children leave home?
- new communication methods
- communication patterns mimic those with friends
- often children initiate communication interactions
- parents are often more cautious in giving negative feedback
- siblings may experience loss as the person is no longer there daily
what is empty nest?
sad, empty feelings many parents have as children leave
What do grandchildren give to grandparents
- sense of purpose
- pass on values
- chance to redo or undo past mistakes
- can bridge relationship with their children
what is recommended for effective grand parenting?
- provide support to your children, not advice
- learn to wait your turn for time with kids
- have close relationships by modern means of comm.
What are some sources of stress for parenting one's own parents?
- possible depression and isolation
- conflict with non-caregiving siblings
- decisions about leaving work to meet parents' needs
- role-reversal issues
What are some work policies that benefit working parents?
- pay the costs of further edu
- offer advancements to practice new skills attained
- train on interpersonal and problem-solving skills
Parents who felt positive effects from work had what characteristics?
- had jobs that demanded more days per week
- who experienced less stress and autonomy at work
- who had supportive supervisors and coworkers
- who had more parental support from family and friends
- felt they were raising their children as they wanted
parents most likely to have negative experience:
- put higher priority on work than family
- were more likely to be managers with relatively large responsibilities
- had demanding jobs that were difficult to complete in time
- had jobs that were too stimulating or not enough
- had less parenting support
what are some of the characteristics of working parents?
- maintain higher levels of involvement with children by increasing work load
- interact more intensely with them
- "intentional parenting"
what are some cognitive-behavioral strategies?
- i prioritize and do things that are most necessary
- i plan how i'm going to use my time and energy
- i take on tasks if no one else is capable or available
- i limit my volunteer work
how do you delegate responsibilities?
- preferences are respected in negotiating rules
- problem-solving approach
- household chores can be divided into categories
who provides most non-maternal care?
relative care: 50%
what are two aspects of quality in care?
- nurturing, positive, responsiveness
- safe, healthy and developmentally stimulating
What are ways to help a child adjust to a new family?
what percent of adoptions are adults related to the children?
at what ages do children begin to wonder why they were adopted?
What do Brodzinsky and Pinderhuges caution about adoption?
- focusing on problems
- obscures real benefits of adoption
What family communication patter has the largest amount of adoptive followers?
what percent of divorced men and women remarry?
what is a complex family?
family that consists of many individuals who do not live within the basic unit of parents and children but are still important
what are some myths of divorce and remarriage?
what percent of teens actually plan for a pregnancy?
what affect does church have on teen mothers?
what percent of preemies have insecure attachments to teen mothers at one year of age?
what are some protective factors for children whose parents are divorcing?
- quality of child
- supportive aspects of family
- external social supports
describe children's behaviors when they go through a parents divorce
how many children report being bullied?
what percent of children have a serious illness?
what is the difference between grief, mourning, bereavement
- grief- "heavy" normal reaction to loss- physical reaction
- bereavement- "rob or plunder"- separation or loss through death
- mourn- express grief, culturally prescribed behaviors
what are the Dougy Centers Guiding principles for grief?
- grief is natural and expected response
- each carries with him or her an innate capacity to heal
- duration and intensity of grief is unique for each
- caring and acceptance are helpful to a person resolving grief
Bowlby's separation stages
strategies for parental coping
- form collaborative partnerships with everyone
- balance needs of all family members
- focus on positive aspects of the situation
- emphasize commitment of all family members and helping everyone
- maintain ties to other family and friends
- be flexible with family roles and let others take on new roles
- separating the illness from the child
what is complicated grief?
when life issues are unexpressed and become locked in frozen blocks of time
what are some common activities for children experiencing "normal grief"?
- retelling story
- feeling that the deceased person is still with them
- feeling rejected by old friends and making new ones
- calling home during day
- difficulty concentrating at school
what are six types of childhood loss?
- loss of relationship
- loss of external objects
- skill or ability
four main types of abuse
neurobiological responses to maltreatment
- fear creates hormones that trigger adrenal glands to produce cortisol
- high cortisol helps body respond by triggering brain to shut down
- children may become continuously low, less responsive
- may damage the immune system and change memory functions on the brain
- hyperarousal shows decline in intellectual functioning, attention and memory
- poor peer relations
- posttraumatic stress disorder
- disorganized attachment to parent
- poor emo regulation and feelings of self blame
what are some interventions for abuse
- separate child from abuser
- train parents to cope and parent child appropriately
- therapy to help children manage feelings
- activities that promote feelings of self worth, control, and social connections
- interrupting cycle of abuse
common mistakes in explaining death to children
- "beth lost her mommy"
- "your grandma is watching you from heaven so you better be good"
- "he went to sleep last night"
- "he is on a long trip"
- "it's god's will. he took him because he is so good"
signs of suicidal feelings
- child wishes to be with deceased
- hoping to punish person who died by getting even
- attempting to regain power by sing, I'l leave you
- child wishes to die to alleviate pain
- exhibits self anger and danger
- flirts with death
- lose touch with reality
- become preoccupied with death
- cry out for health
myths about children and grief
- grief and mourning are the same
- child's grief is shorter
- its stagelike and predictable
- infants and toddlers are too young to grief
- children are not affect by grieving and mourning adults
- expression of tears are weak and harmful
- children are better off if they don't attend funerals
- adults should instantly know how to explain and help children
- goal of helping should be to get over it
strategies for helping
- be honest
- give permission to cry
- encourage funeral attendance
- encourage peer support
- validate feelings
- monitor your own coping mechanisms
- give plenty of love and attention
- let them play