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2010-12-12 16:58:55
Beethoven on

Listening examples from Beethoven to the end of the material covered.
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  1. Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major (the Eroica)
    • Beethoven
    • symphony (first movement)
    • 19th century
    • sonata form
    • 1. Two loud tonic chords at the opening provide the briefest of introductions.
    • 2. Movement has dissonances far more intense than those used by Haydn or Mozart.
  2. Gretchen am Spinnrade
    • Schubert
    • Lied
    • 19th Century
    • modified strophic ( A B A C A D A')
    • 1. Schubert alters Goethe's poem, making the first stanza into a kind of refrain to emphasize Gretchen's anxiety and heavy heart.
    • 2. Piano accompaniment both sets the scene and portrays Gretchen's emotions: the constantly turning pattern in the piano depicts the rotations of the spinning wheel, and her unceasing agitation as she thinks of Faust.
  3. Nocturne in D-flat major, Op. 27. No.2
    • Chopin
    • nocturne
    • 19th Century
    • based on repitition (with variation) of two themes
    • 1. Both themes are lovely, arialike melodies using florid embellishments inspired by the bel canto style of Italian opera.
    • 2. Accompanying chords are broken into harplike arpeggios and widely spaced in the bass and middle registers, to exploit the natural resonance of the piano.
  4. Songe d'une nuit du sabbat from Symphonie fantastique
    • Berlioz
    • program symphony (last movement)
    • 19th century
    • free, determined by the program
    • 1.Uses an extraordinary number and variety of instruments (including bells and the ophicleide).
    • 2.Grotesque transformation of the Dies Irae mocks the Catholic church.
  5. Tristan und Isolde
    • Wagner
    • excerpt from a music drama
    • 19th century
    • form is N/A
    • 1.The highly chromatic harmonic language is important in expressing the emotional world of the characters.
    • 2. The orchestra is large and is given a commanding role in expressing the drama (e.g., at the opening of the excerpt, wavelike orchestral music reflects both the motions of the ship and turbulence of Tristan's feelings)
  6. La Traviata
    • Verdi
    • scena (recitative) and duet from an opera
    • 19th century
    • free recitative; duet is AABB with coda
    • Recitative:
    • 1. Different from traditional accompanined recitative, because the accompaniment in the orchestra is continuous (instead of brief interjections).
    • 2. Short phrases of dialogue between Annina and Violetta, and rhythm of orchestral melody and throbbing accompaniment, suggest Annina's excitement at having seen Alfredo.
    • Duet:
    • 1. Set in waltz time to suggest the dancing and parties of Violetta's old life as a courtesan.
    • 2. Vocal melody of the A section is as tuneful as a popular song, suggesting their happiness as they look forward to a life together as she recovers her health.
  7. Nuages
    • Debussy
    • Impressionist orchestral work
    • late 19th century
    • ABA'
    • 1. Instrumental colour and texture begin to replace melody (theme) as the primary agents to the creation of musical form.
    • 2. The oscillating pattern of fifth and thirds which begins the piece conveys an impression of movement but no harmonic direction (evoking shifting clouds.)
  8. "Minuet" from Piano Suite
    • Schoenerg
    • minuet from a 12-tone suite
    • 20th century
    • Minuet (binary) and Trio (binary) create the traditional A B A form.
    • 1. Throughout the Minuet proper, the row is segmented into 3 subsets of 4 notes each.
    • 2. Pitch order within the subsets is treated quite freely.
  9. "Danse des adolescentes" from Le Sacre du printemps
    • Stravinsky
    • ballet
    • 20th century
    • Free form
    • 1. Percussive treatment of orchestra, and other unprecedented orchestral effects.
    • 2. Rhythm has unprecedented importance, and traditional rhythms are rejected in favour of irregular accents.