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final
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  1. Bacteria cause infection & disease by 3main mechanisms what are they?
    • 1. damaging cell with microbial enzymes
    • 2. producing toxins that can target specific organs or have generalized systemic effects
    • 3. causing hypersensitivity reaction or allergic
  2. The ability of a microbe to cause disease
    Pathogenicity
  3. When an infection proceeds to cause some host cell functions to become impaired
    Infection
  4. When an infection proceeds to cause some host cell functions to become impaired
    disease
  5. Primary pathogens
    organisms that can cause disease in anyone no matter what the health status of the individual
  6. Opportunistic pathogens
    ORGANISMS THAT ARE PART OF YOUR NORMAL FLORA THAT CAUSE DISEASE WHEN YOUR RESISTANCE FACTORS ARE COMPROMISED
  7. ATTENUNATED PATHOGENS
    MICROBES THAT THROUGH CULTURING IN ABNORMAL HOST HAVE DECREASED THEIR ABILITY TO CAUSE DISEASE
  8. THE DEGREE OF A PATHOGEN'S ABILITY TO CAUSE DISEASE. IT DETERMINES THE MICROBE INVASIVENESS AND TOXIGENICITY
    VIRULENCE
  9. THESE VIRULENT ORGANISMS CAN CAUSE DEATH
    EXTREME VIRULENT
  10. THESE VIRULENT ORGANISMS LEAD TO A DISEASE
    MILDLY VIRLUENT
  11. THESE VIRULENT ORGANISMS DONT CAUSE DISEASE AND ARE OFTEN VACCINES
    AVIRULENT
  12. TO BE PATHOGENIC A MICROBE MUST ?
    • 1. ENTER THE BODY AT ITS PROPER PORTAL OF ENTRY
    • 2. ENTER THE HOST WITH THE PROPER INFECTIOUS DOSE OF MICROBES
    • 3.POSSESS MEAN OF ADHERENCE TO THE CELL AT THE PORTAL OF ENTRY
    • 4. PENETRATION FO THE HOST'S PRIMARY BARRIERS AND AVOID HOST CELL MECHANISMS
  13. THE PROPER PORTAL ENTRY OF A MICROBE ARE?
    MUCOUS MEMBRANES, SKIN OR PARENTERALLY. THE EARS, NOSE, CONJUNCTIVA OF EYE, BROKEN SKIN, INSECT BITE,ANUS, VAGINA, URETHRA, MOUTH, PLACENTA & PENIS
  14. SOME EXAMPLES OF ENZYMES USED BY S. aUREUS TO PENETRATE AND INVADE TISSUE TO CAUSE DISEASE
    • 1. HYALURONIDASE HYDROLYZES "TISSUE CEMENT"
    • 2. COAGULASE(RABBIT PLASMA) CAUSES PLASMA TO CLOT DEPOSITING A FIBRIN WALL AROUND THE MICROBES FOR PROTECTION
    • 3. HIMOLYSINS LYSE RBC (BETA HEMOLTIC STAPH & STREP)
    • 4. LEUKOCIDINS DESTROY WBC
    • 5. STAPHYLOKINASE CAUSES CLOTS TO DISSOLVE
    • 6. DNAse BREAKS DOWN THE DNA IN PUS
  15. RINGWORM FUNGI USE ENZYME ____ TO DIGEST THE KERATIN PROTEIN IN HAIR, SKIN AND NAILS.
    KERATINASE
  16. TOXINS ARE USE BY BACTERIA TO
    DAMAGE THE HOST AND CAUSE DISEASE
  17. EXOTOXINS ARE
    PROTEINS SECRETED BY MICROBES INTO THEIR SURROUNDINGS THAT CAN BE PRODUCED BY GRAM+ OR - CELLS & TRAVEL THROUGHOUT THE BODY TO AFFECT TARGET ORGANS.
  18. CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM AND TETANI PRODUCE WHAT KIND OF TOXINS?
    NEUROTOXINS
  19. ENTERTOXINS ARE PRODUCED BY?
    • 1.VIBRIO CHOLERA
    • 2. STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS
    • 3. E-COLI (ENTEROPATHOGENIC)
    • 4. SALMONELLA
  20. RESPIRATORY TOXINS ARE PRODUCED BY?
    BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS
  21. THIS BACTERIA IN THE CILIARY BORDER OF THE CELLS LINING THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT PRODUCE AN EXOTOXIN THAT CAUSE PARALYSIS OF THE CILIA AND ACCUMULATION OF MUCUS THAT SENDS THE CHILD INTO A COUGHING FIT
    BORDETELLA PERTUSIS
  22. TOXOIDS ARE?
    NOT TOXIC BUT THEY STIMULATE THE PRODUCTION OF THE SMAE ANTIBODIES THAT THE ACTUAL TOXIN WOULD PRODUCE.
  23. T/F HARMFUL BACTERIA EXOTOXINS CAN BE DENATURED TO PRODUCE HARMLESS TOXOIDS AND SINCE THEY CONTAIN THE SAME ANITGENIC MOLECULES PRODUCES ANTIBODIES LIKE THE EXOTOXIN AND IT CAN BE USED AS A VACCINE AND PROTECT THE PATIENTS.
    TRUE
  24. _________&_______ VACCINES ARE TOXOIDS, PRODUCED FROM DENATURED INACTIVATED EXOTOXINS PRODUCED BY BACTERIA
    TETANUS AND DIPHTHERIA
  25. TOXINS PRODUCED BY GRAM - BACTERIA AND ARE LIBERATED AS THE BACTERIA CELL DIES?
    ENDOTOXINS
  26. IN ENDOTOXINS THE__________ PORTION OF THE GRAM- CELL WALL IS THE TOXIN AND AS THE CELLS DIE AND THE CELL WALL DISINTEGRATE THE TOXIN IS RELEASED
    LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE (LPS)
  27. ENDOTOXINS ARE HEAT STABLE SO THEY DONT PRODUCE_____
    TOXOIDS
  28. ENDOTOXINS ARE NOT AS FATAL AS EXOTOXINS BUT CAN CAUSE WHAT?
    FEVER, ACHES, AND FATIGUE AND CAN RESULT IN PRODUCING SHOCK WHICH CAN LEAD TO DEATH.
  29. PORTAL OF EXIST IS ?
    A WAY OF ESCAPE FROM ONE HOST IN ORDER TO ENTER A NEW HOST
  30. PORTAL EXISTS ARE
    • RESPIRATORY SECRETIONS
    • URINE
    • FECES
    • BIOLOGICAL VECTORS
    • SKIN LESIONS
  31. EPIDEMIOLOGY IS
    THE STUDY OD DETECTING THE SPREAD OF DISEASE MONITORING THE NUMBER OF CASES AND WHERE THEY OCCUR AND CONTROLLING THE SPREAD OF DISEASE.
  32. INCUBATION PERIOD
    Infection 1st starts no s+s
  33. PRODROMAL PERIOD
    Pt 1st begin to notice s+s
  34. DISEASE PERIOD
    when infection cause illness
  35. CONVALESCENCE PERIOD
    s+s are resolved pt start to recover
  36. WHAT IS ENDEMIC?
    Constant number seen over a period of time in a specific region
  37. WHAT IS EPIDEMIC?
    a drastic increase in numbers beyond what is expected for a population
  38. WHAT IS PANDEMIC?
    epidemic across continents
  39. WHAT IS MORBIDITY?
    sickness
  40. WHAT IS MORTALITY?
    death
  41. WHAT IS A VECTOR?
    an animal that trasmits disease
  42. WHAT IS A FOMITE?
    nonliving objects that serves a reservoir of disease
  43. WHAT IS ZOONOSES?
    infections that animals get and pass -> humans
  44. WHAT IN INSECT CAUSES LYME DISEASE?
    A TICK
  45. WHAT INSECT CAUSES MALARIA?
    ANOPHELES MOSQUITO
  46. WHAT INSECT CAUSE ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTED FEVER?
    TICKS
  47. WHAT INSECT CAUSE EPIDEMIC TYPHUS?
  48. WHAT INSECT CAUSE TULAREMIA?
    DEERFLIES, TICKS, AND MOSQUITOS
  49. WHAT INSECT CAUSE YELLOW FEVER?
    MOSQUITOES
  50. WHAT INSECT CAUSE BUBONIC PLAQUE /
    RAT FLEAS
  51. WHAT CAUSES CHAGA'S DISEASE?
    KISSING BUG (REDUVID)
  52. WHAT CAUSES AFRICAN SLEEPING SICKNESS?
    TSETES FLIES
  53. WHAT CAUSES ENCEPHALITIS?
    A MOSQUITO AND TICKS
  54. HOW MANY LINES OF DEFENSE DOES YOUR BODY HAVE?
    3
  55. THE FIRST LINE OF DEFENSE AND IS NONSPECIFIC
    SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANES
  56. THE 2ND LINE OF DEFENSE AND IS NONSPECIFIC
    PHAGOCYTIC WBC
  57. 3RD LINE OF DEFENSE AND IS SPECIFIC?
    B&T LYMPHOCYTES
  58. SPECIES RESISTANCE
    ONLY GET DISEASES IN YOUR SPECIES
  59. RACIAL RESISTANCE
    EX INDIANS OF AMERICA DIED OUT WHEN THE EUROPEANS BEING EXPLORING
  60. INDIVIDUAL RESISTANCE
    WHY THE SAME PATHOGEN CAUSE DIFFERENT OUTCOMES IN DIFFERENT PEOPLE
  61. PREDISPOSING CONDITIONS THAT MAKE PEOPLE LESS RESISTANCE(MORE SUSCEPTIBLE) TO GETTING INFECTIONS
    • 1. STRESS, FATIGUE, ANXIETY, DEPRESSION, SLEEP DEPRIVATION
    • 2.AGE
    • 3. POOR NUTRITION, POOR HYGIENE, POOR QUALITY HOUSING
    • 4. OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS
  62. YOUR SKIN AND MUCOUS MEMBRANE IS
    YOUR 1ST LINE OF DEFENSE
  63. 1ST LINE OF DEFENSE IS NONSPECIFIC TRYING TO PROTECT YOU FROM WHAT?
    ALL INVADING ANTIGENS
  64. ONLY THE EPIDERMIS AND EXTENSTIONS FROM OPENINGS OF THE EPIDERMIS HAVE NORMAL FLORA. THE DERMIS AND EVERYTHING INTERNAL IS WHAT?
    TYPICALLY STERILE
  65. THE SKIN IS WHAT TYPE OF BARRIER TO MICROBES?
    IMPERMEABLE
  66. SWEAT CONTAINS LYSOZYMES THAT WHAT?
    KILLS BACTERIA
  67. DRY SKIN IS MORE ACIDIC AND IT DOES WHAT?
    INHIBITS THE GROWTH OF BACTERIA AND FUNGI
  68. THIS HAS A NEUTRAL pH WHICH ENCOURAGES BACTERIAL GROWTH
    MOIST SKIN
  69. SALT SECRETED IN SWEAT ARE
    INHIBITORY TO MANY BACTERIA. HALOPHILES (S. EPIDRMIDIS AND S AUREUS) HAVE NO PROBLEM LIVING IN THAT ENVIROMENT
  70. INHIBITORY TO MANY BACTERIA AND FUNGI
    FATTY ACIDS CONTAINED IN SEBUM
  71. YOUR NATURAL FLORA CONSIST OF
    HARMLESS BACTERIA, FUNGI AND PROTOZOA WHICH COMPETE WITH PATHOGENS FOR THE ENVIROMENT ON WHICH THEY LIVE.
  72. T/F, MICROBIAL FLORA IS A PART OF YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM UPSETTING THE NORMAL MICROBIAL BALANCE AND INCREASE THE RATES OF INFECTIONS
    TRUE
  73. WITHOUT THE NORMAL MICROBIAL FLORA, THE___ ____ DOESNOT DEVELOPE NORMALLY
    IMMUNE SYSTEM
  74. T/F EVEN WITH ALL THE CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL BARRIERS SOME MICROBES STILL GET THROUGH THE LINE OF DEFENSE
    TRUE
  75. THE EPITHELIAL CELLS OF YOUR MUCOUS MEMBRANE SECRETES?
    MUCUS WHICH SERVES TO TRAP MICROBES AND PREVENT THE DEHYDRATION OF THE LINING OF VARIOUS ORGANS
  76. MUCUS CONTAINS LYSOZYMES AND OTHER ENZYMES THAT
    ATTACK MICROBES
  77. EACH BODY PART LINED WITH MUCOUS MEMBRANES HAS ITS OWN WHAT AND WHAT DOES IT DO?
    NORMAL MICROBIAL FLORA AND OTHER MECHANISMS TO PREVENT THE GROWTH OF UNWANTED PATHOGENS
  78. MUCUS MEMBRANES LINED ORGANS ARE COVERED WITH GLISTENING MUCUS THAT?
    KEEPS MOIST AND HELPS TO PREVENT PATHOGENS FROM CAUSING DISEASE
  79. STERILE BODY PARTS
    • BRAIN AND NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • SPINAL CORD & CSF
    • MUSCLES, BONES & SINUSES
    • GLANDS,LIVER, LUNGS
    • KIDNEYS, URETERS, BLADDER
    • HEART AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
    • MIDDLE & INNER EAR
    • INTERNAL CONTENTS OF YOUR EYES
  80. T/F YOUR ENTIRE NERVOUS SYSTEM, SKELETAL SYSTEM, BONES, LIGAMENTS & TENDONS ARE STERILE
    TRUE
  81. T/F YOUR MUSCLES AND YOUR SINUSES ARE NOT STERILE
    FALSE THEY ARE STERILE
  82. T/F THE POXIMAL URETHA IS NOT STERILE.
    TRUE
  83. THE URINARY SYSTEM FROM THE KIDNEYS TO THE URETERS, URINARY BLADDER, AND URETHRA. THE GLANDS OF YOUR BODY ARE STERILE
    TRUE
  84. YOUR CIRCULATORY SYSTEM ARTERIES, VEIN CAPILLARIES, YUR HEART AND BLOOD ARE STERILE
    TRUE
  85. YOUR MIDDLE & INNER EAR AS WELL AS YOUR INNER EYE ARE STERILE
    TRUE
  86. THE SKIN NORMAL FLORA CONSIST OF WHAT MICROBES?
    • STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS
    • CANDIDA ALBICANS
    • MICROCOCCUS LUTEUS
    • CORYNEBACTERIUM SPP
  87. THE S&S AND WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME FOR ACNE
    PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACNES A OIL IN HAIR FOLLICLES CLOG THE HAIR FOLLICLE PORE FORMING A COMEDONE OR PLUG
  88. THE S&S OF IMPETIGO ARE?
  89. S&S OF FLESH EATING DISEASE?
  90. S&S OF RED MEASLES?
  91. S&S OF MEASLES AND HOW ITS TRANSMITTED AND IS THERE A VACCINE?
    • COUGH,RUNNY NOSE, WATERY EYES & FEVER, KOPLIKS SPOTS (RED BUMPS WITH WHITE SPOTS) INSIDE THE MOUTH AND OFTEN GET SORE THROAT, FLAT RED PATCHY RASH ON THE HEAD AND FACE THAT SPREADS TO THE TORSO THEN TO EXT.AS RASH SPREAD THE FEVER INCREASE 103-105
    • TRANSMITTED RESP OR AEROSOL GTT.
    • YES MMR
  92. S&S OF SHINGLES AND IS THERE A VACCINE AND WHATS THE MODE OF TRANSMISSION?
    • LOCALIZED PAINFUL SKIN ERUPTIONS.
    • A VACCINE IS AVAILABLE FOR PT OVER60
    • TRANSMITTED RESP GTTS OR CONTACT WITH SECRETIONS FROM SHINGLES
  93. S&S OF WARTS, HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED AND IS THERE A VACCINE?
    • A THICK SMALL CAULIFLOWER LIKE GROWTH WITH TINY PINPOINT CAPILLARIES IN THE WART.
    • CONTACT
    • YES
  94. S&S OF SCARLET FEVER, HOW IS TRANSMITTED IS THERE A VACCINE?
  95. S&S OF GAS GANGRENE, HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED IS THERE A VACCINE?
  96. S&S OF HANSEN'S DISEASE, HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED AND IS THERE A VACCINE?
  97. S&S OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER, HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED IS THERE A VACCINE AND WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME AND WHAT TYPE OF MICROBE?
  98. S&S OF SCALDED SKIN SYNDROME, HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED IS THERE A VACCINE, WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME AND WHAT TYPE OF MICROBE IS IT?
  99. S&S OF GERMAN MEASLES HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED IS THERE A VACCINE WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME AND WHAT TYPE OF MICROBE IS IT?
  100. S&S OF SMALLPOX HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED IS THERE A VACCINE WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME AND WHAT TYPE OF MICROBE IS IT?
  101. S&S OF RINGWORMS, HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED, IS THERE A VACCINE WHAT IS THE SCIENCTIC NAME AND WHAT TYPE OF MICROBE IS IT?
  102. S&S OF CAT SCRATCH DISEASE, HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED, IS THERE A VACCINE, WHATS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME AND WHAT TYPE OF MICROBE IS IT?
  103. S&S OF EPIDEMIC TYPHUS, HOW IS IT TRASMITTED, IS THERE A VACCINE AND WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME?
  104. S&S OF DENTAL CARRIES , HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED,IS THERE A VACCINE AND WHATS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME?
  105. S&S OF MUMPS, HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED, IS THERE A VACCINE, AND WHATS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME?
  106. S&S OF GONORRHEA PHARYNGITIS, HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED, IS THERE A VACCINE AND WHATS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME?
  107. THE EYES CONTAIN LYSOZYMES AND HELPS TO ?
    FLUSH BACTERIA OVER THE OCULAR SURFACE INTO THE NASOLACRIMAL DUCTS
  108. S&S OF PINKEYE (CONJUCTIVITIS), HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED, IS THERE A VACCINE AND WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME?
  109. S&S OF TRACHOMA HOW IS IT TRANSMITTED IS THERE A VACCINE WHAT IS THE SCIENTIFIC NAME?
  110. THE RESPIRATORY TRACT SHOULD HAVE NO?
    NORMAL FLORA
  111. NASOPHARYNX MUCUS CONTAINS LYSOZYMES AND IT DOES WHAT?
    TRAP BACTERIA BEFORE MICROBES ENTER THE LUNGS.
  112. ______ ______ MOVES TRAPPED MICROVES TO THE PHARYNX WHERE THEY ARE SWALLOWED AND END UP IN THE STOMACH.
    CILIARY ESCULATOR
  113. NORMAL UPPER RESPIRATORY FLORA IS
    • STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS
    • ALPHA HEMOLYIC STREPTOCOCCI
    • AND STAPH AUREUS IN CARRIERS.
  114. THE UPPER RESPIRATORY CELLS PROTECT THE LOWER RESPIRATORY WITH CILIA AND MUCUS BY USING WHAT?
    CILIARY ESCALATOR IT REMOVES POLLEN, VIRUSES AND BACTERIA
  115. INFECTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM TRACT CAN OCCUR WHEN PEOPLE SNEEZE, TALK, LAUGH OR COUGH IS CALLED WHAT?
    AEROSOL SPREAD
  116. THERE ARE FEW BACTERIA IN YOUR STOMACH DUE TO THE ?
    ACIDIC pH
  117. LACTOBACILLILUS ACIDOPHILUS CAN SURVIVE THE?
    PASSAGE OF THE STOMACH
  118. INTESTINAL BACTERIA ARE CALLED?
    ENTERIC
  119. T/F THE HUGE NUMBER OF ENTERIC BACTERIA ARE HARMLESS AND BENEFICIAL BACTERIA IN THE FLORA HELP TO KEEP THE NUMBERS OF HARMFUL BACTERIA LOW IN YOUR SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINES
    TRUE
  120. URINE IS __ IN THE KIDNEYS, URETHER, URINARY BLADDER AND UPPER URETHRA
    STERILE
  121. THE NORMAL VAGINAL FLORA BEFORE PUBERTY AND AFTER MENOPAUSE IS MORE LIKE THE SKIN & COLON WITH A
    pH MORE NEAR NEUTRAL.
  122. NORMAL VAGINAL FLORA CONSIST OF
    • STAPHYLOCOCCI
    • STREPTOCOCCI
    • DIPHTEROIDS
  123. DURING OVARIAN ACTIVITY THE pH IS NEAR 5 AND CONSIST OF:
    • LACTOBACILLUS SPP
    • CANDIDA ALBICANS
    • ENTEROCOCCUS
    • CORYNEBACTERIUM
  124. THE VAGINA HAS NORMAL FLORA THAT _____ THRU HER LIFE
    FLUCTUATES OR CHANGES
  125. THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS ARE STERILE
    TRUE
  126. T/F THE BLOOD OF BABY AND MOTHER MIXES
    FALSE THEY DON'T MIX
  127. NUTRIENTS,WASTE,AND GASES AS WELL AS TOXINS, DRUGS AND SOME MICROBES PASS THROUGH THE?
    PLACENTA BY DIFFUSION AND OTHER PROCESSES
  128. THE UNBORN CHILD IS STERILE IN A STERILE
    AMONIOTIC SAC
  129. IN SYPHILIS THE BABY WILL BE STILL BORN IF
    PREGNANT DURING THE 1 OR 2 STAGE
  130. IF PREGNANT DURING LATENT STAGE IF UNTREATED CAN LEAD TO DEATH OF THE NEWBORN
    CONGENITAL SYPHILIS
  131. CAN LEAD TO MENTAL RETARDATION, EYE DAMAGE AND HEARING LOSS
    TOXOPLASMOSIS
  132. NESSERIA GONORRHOEAE CAN CAUSE
    NEONATAL BLINDNESS, BLOOD AND JOINT INFECTIONS
  133. 1ST AND 2ND TRIMESTER LEAD TO STILL BORN
    LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES
  134. LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES
    3RD TRIMESTER LEADS TO PREMATURE BIRTH AND INFECTION
  135. LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS
    LEADS TO CONGENITAL LEPTO OR DEATH
  136. INFECTION LEADS TO DEATH
    HIV
  137. HEPATITIS B
    CHRONIC HEPATIS->CIRRHOSIS->LIVER CA
  138. CYTOMEGALOVIRUS
    MENTAL RETARDATION
  139. BORRELIA BURGDOFERI CAN CAUSE ___ IN NEWBORNS
    STILLBIRTH
  140. CANDIDA ALBICANS CAUSES
    THRUSH
  141. COMPLICATIONS IN FETAL DEVELOPEMENT IS IS IN THE 1ST 20WKS OF PREGNANCY
    VARICELLA-HERPES ZOSTER
  142. STREPTOCOCCUS(GROUP A) CAUSE
    SCARLET AND RHEUMATIC FEVER
  143. STREPTOCOCCUS AGALACTIAE(GROUP B) CAUSES
    LIFE THREATENING BLOOD INFECTIONS AND MENINGITIS
  144. DURING THE 1ST TRIMESTER CAN CAUSE
    MENTAL RETARDATION, CATARACTS, DEAFNESS, AND HEART DEFECTS
  145. NEONATAL BLINDNESS
    CHLAMYDIA
  146. CAN BE FATAL IN NEWBORNS
    HERPES
  147. 2ND LINE OF DEFENSE CONSIST OF
    PHAGOCYTIC WBC THAT ATTACKS ANTIGENS THAT GOT THROUGH 1ST LINE OF DEFENSE
  148. PHAGOCYTIC WBC ARE NONSPECIFIC TRYING TO RID THE BODY OD ANY
    ANTIGENS THAT ENTER THE BODY
  149. PLASMA
    FLUID COLLECTION OF UNCLOTTED BLOOD
  150. SERUM
    FLUID COLLECTION OF CLOTTED BLOOD
  151. THE FLUID PART OF THE BLOOD CONTAINS
    NUTRIENTS, ANTIBODIES, AND HORMONES
  152. RED TOP TUBES FOR BLOOD COLLECTION
    CONTAINS NO CHEMICALS
  153. THE LAVENDER TOP TUBES FOR BLOOD COLLECTION CONTAINS
    ANTICOAGULANT EDTA
  154. EDTA IN BLOOD COLLECTION ALLOWS THE TECH TO OBTAIN
    PLASMA FORM THE TUBE FOR VARIOUS LAB TEST
  155. BLOOD CELLS ARE:
    • RBC ERYTHROCYTES
    • PLATELETS THROMBOCYTES
    • WBC WHITE BLOOD CELLS
  156. GRANULOCYTES ARE:
    • NEUTROPHILS
    • EOSINOPHILS
    • BASOPHILS
  157. NEUTROPHILS ARE
    • HIGHLY PHAGOCYTIC THAT ACCUMULATES EARLY IN AN INFECTION.
    • THE MOST NUMEROUS LEUKOCYTE
    • SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE
    • THE FIRST TO ATTACK
  158. EOSINOPHIL ARE
    • WEAKLY PHAGOCTIC COMMONLY RISE IN NUMBERS DUE TO WORM AND FUNGUS INFESTATION AND ALLERGIES
    • 2ND LINE OF DEFENSE
  159. BASOPHILS
    • NOT PHAGOCYTIC
    • RELEASE HISTAMINES AND OTHER CHEMICALS DURING ALLERGIC REACTIONS
    • 2ND LINE DEFENSE
  160. MONOCYTES ARE
    HIGHLY PHAGOCYTIC CELLS
  161. WHEN MONOCYTES LEAVE THE BLOOD AND ENTERS THE TISSUES THEY BECOME
    • MACROPHAGES THAT RISE IN NUMBERS DURING THE LATER STAGES OF INFECTION AND ARE ANTIGEN PRESENTING CELL TO THE THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE AND THEY HAVE NO MEMORY
    • EATS/REMOVE ALL THE DEAD TISSUE AND CELL AND ANTIGENS
  162. LYMPHOCYTES ARE
    NOT PHAGOCYTIC AND ARE A PART OF THE 3RD LINE DEFENSE
  163. THESE LYMPHOCYTES MAKES ANTIBODIES
    B
  164. THESE LYMPHOCYTES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR CELL MEDIATED IMMUNITY
    T
  165. NATURAL KILLER LYMPOCYTES ARE PART OF WHICH LINE OF DEFENSE
    THE 2ND
  166. INFLAMMATION IS A PART OF THE 2ND LINE OF DEFENSE BUT HAS THESE SYMPTOMS
    • RUBOR=
    • CALOR=
    • DOLOR=PAIN
    • TUMOR=
  167. FEVER D/T INFECTIONS ARE OFTEN DUE TO
    MACROPHAGES PHAGOCYTIZING GRAM- BACTERIA
  168. BACTERIA RELEASE THEIR LPS LAYER OF ENDOTOXINS WHICH CAUSE THE MACROPHAGE TO RELEASE
    PYROGENIC CHEMICAL(INTERLEUKIN1) INTO THE BLOOD
  169. THE PYROGENS CIRCULATE TO THE HYPOTHALAMUS OF YOUR BRAIN AND RESET YOUR BODYS TEMPERATURE THERMOSTAT
    RAISING YOUR BODY TEMP
  170. INTERFERON PROTEINS ARE PRODUCED BY CELLS OF YOUR BODY
    THAT HAVE BEEN ATTACKED BY VIRUSES
  171. THESE PROTEINS CIRCULATE AND WARN NEIGHBORING CELLS OF THE BODY THAT A VIRUS IS AROUND THIS ALLOWS THESE NEIGHBORING CELLS TO PRODUCE ANTI-VIRAL PROTEINS
    INTERFERON
  172. FEVERS RARELY KILLS PATHOGENIC MICROBES THEY MAY SLOW DOWN THE GROWTH OF SOME MICROBES AND
    INCREASE THE SPEED AT WHICH MACROPHAGES WORK.
  173. BETA INFERNON IS A PROTEIN IN WHICH IS FOUND IN SMALL QUALITIES IN
    LIVING ORGANISMS
  174. WE USE BACTERIA TO MAKE
    INTERFERON
  175. NATURAL KILLER CELLS GENERALLY TARGET
    CANCEROUS CELLS AND BIRALLY INFECTED CELLS OF THE BODY
  176. THEY USE ENZYMES TO DESTROY THESE ABNORMAL CELLS
    NATURAL KILLERS
  177. NATURAL KILLER ARE MADE FROM
    INTERFERON
  178. THE TWO TYPES OF LYMPHOCYTES EACH DEVELOPED FROM STEM CELLS IN THE
    BONE MARROW THEN THEY MATURE AS THEY DISPERSE IN THE BLOOD AND LYMPATHIC TISSUE WHERE EACH CELL DETERMINES THE TYPE OF LYMPHOCYTE IT WILL BE
  179. B LYMPHOCYTES ARE RESPONSIBLE FOR
    HUMORAL IMMUNITY
  180. HUMORAL IMMUNITY USES
    ANTIBODIES
  181. B LYMPHOCYTES DIFFERENTIATE AND MATURE IN THE
    BONE MARROW
  182. ANTIBODIES (IMMUNOGLONULINS) ARE PRODUCED ON THE
    B CELL SURFACE AND ARE THEN CARRIED THROUGH THE BODY IN THE BLOOD
  183. ANTIBODIES ARE MOST EFFECTIVE AGAINST
    • EXTRACELLULAR PATHOGENS(VIRSUS &BACTERIA)
    • AND TOXINS
  184. T LYMPHOCYTES DIFFERENTIATE AND MATURE IN THE?
    THYMUS
  185. 5 TYPES OF ANTIBODIES( IMMUNOGLOBULINS OR Ig's)
    • IgM
    • IgG
    • IgA
    • IgD
    • IgE
  186. IgM
    • 1ST ANTIBODY PRODUCED AFTER ANTIGEN DETECTED
    • RISING IgM MEANS AN INFECTION IS CURRENT
  187. IgG
    • MAKE ABOUT 80% OF CIRCULATING ANTIBODIES
    • PASS TO PLACENTA FROME MOTHER ->CHILD
    • YOUR MAIN HUMORAL DEFENSE AGAINST EXTRACELLULAR BACTERIA VIRUS AND TOXINS
    • MAIN TO ATTACK FOREIGN INTRUDERS
  188. DIMERS ARE WHAT TYPE OF PROTEIN
    AMINO ACIDS/ AND IgA
  189. IgA
    THE MAIN IMMUNOGLOBULIN OF MUCUS(SALIVA, TEARS,SEMEN INTESTINAL MUCUS)
  190. IgE
    • HYPERSENSITIVITY IMMUNOGLOBULIN
    • RESPONSIBLE FOR TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITIES
    • LEADS TO ALLERGIES AND ASTHMA
    • S&S ARISE FAST AND RESULT IN SHOCK AND DEATH
  191. COLOSTRUM MILK CONTAINS A MASSIVE AMT TO HELP PROTECT THE NEWBORN FROM ENTERIC PATHOGEN THAT CAUSES DIARRHEA AND LEADS->DEATH
  192. ALL MAMMALS REQUIRE COLOSTRUM FOR GOOD NEONATAL HEALTH WHICH PROVIDE ___ ___ FROM THE MOTHER
    IgA ANTIBODIES
  193. ALLERGENS CAN LEAD TO ?
    TYPE1 HYPERSENSITIVITY (IgE)
  194. TYPE 1 HYPERSENSITIVITY (IgE) S&S:
    WATERY EYES, RUNNY NOSE AND ITCHY THROAT BUT CAN LEAD -> ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK AND DEATH
  195. ANAPHYLAXIS AND LEAD TO
    • LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
    • HIVES
    • SWELLING OF TONGUE CANT SWALLOW
    • RADID SWELLING OF THROAT TISSUES
  196. ANTIBODIES THAT YOU GET FROM MOM
    • IgG
    • IgA
  197. PEOPLE WITH SEVERE TYPE 1 (IgE) HYPERSENSITIVITY CARRY AN
    EPIPEN TO PREVENT ANAPHYLAXIS & SHOCK ENCOUNTERING DANGEROUS ALLERGENS
  198. ANTIBODIES ARE SPECIFIC FOR ONLY ONE
    ANTIGEN
  199. THE DIFFERENT ORDER OF AMINO ACIDS GIVES THE ANTIGEN BIDING SITE THE ABILITY TO
    RECOGNIZE THE SHAPE OF ONLY ONE ANTIGEN
  200. EPITOPES
    ARE CHEMICAL MARKERS OF ANTIGENS
  201. T/F THE ANTIBODY DONT RECOGNIZE THE ENTIRE PATHOGEN AS FOREIGN, IT RECOGNIZE THE CHEMICAL MARKERS WHICH FIT INTO THE THE ANTIGEN BINDING SITE OF THE ANTIBODY
    TRUE
  202. 2 TYPES OF B LYMPOCYTES
    • PLASMA
    • MEMORY CELLS
    • THAT LIVES IN THE LYMPY NODES, SPLEEN AND OTHER LYMPHOID TISSUES OF YOUR BODY
  203. MEMORY B CELLS
    LONG LIVED AND TRANSFORM TO PRODUCE MORE PLASMA CELLS UPON EACH RE-EXPOSURE TO SPECIFIC ANTIGEN THAT THEY TARGET
  204. PLASMA B CELLS
    SHORT LIVED AND SECRETE ANTIBODIES FROM THEIR SURFACE
  205. CLUMPING OF ANTIGENS
    AGGLUTINATION
  206. COATING THE ANTIGENS TO MAKE THEM MORE DELICIOUS TO MACROPHAGES
    OPSONIZATION
  207. COATING ANTIGENS TO BLOCK THEIR ATTACHMENT SITE
    NEUTRALIZATION
  208. ANTIBODIES ATTACH TO BACTERIA AND FORM HOLES IN THE CELL WALLS RESULTING THE BACTERIAL CELL LYSIS BY ATTRACTING POTEINS TO TO ATTACH TO THE ANTIGENIC CELL MAKE A DOUGHNUT HOLE IN THE CELL MEMBRANE
    COMPLEMENT FIXATION
  209. ANTIBODIES DONT PHAGOCYTIZE ANTIGENS SINCE ANTIBODIES ARE
    PROTEINS
  210. 2 WAYS TO OBTAIN ANITBODIES
    • NATURAL ACTIVE IMMUNITY
    • ARTIFICIAL ACTIVE IMMUNITY
  211. THIS IMMUNITY OCCURS WHEN YOU GET SICK
    NATURAL ACTIVE IMMUNITY
  212. OCCURS THROUGH VACCINATION- THIS TYPE OF IMMUNITY IS ANAMXESTIC SPECIFIC AND TOLERANT
    ARTIFICIAL ACTIVE IMMUNITY
  213. T/F DEVELOPING ANTIBODIES CAN TAKE WEEK TO DEVELOP PROPER ANTIBODY TITERS(LEVELS)
    TRUE
  214. A VACCINE IS MADE OF
    • DEAD PATHOGENS
    • ATTENUATED(MODIFIED LIVE) PATHOGENS
    • TOXOIDS (DENATURED EXOTOXINS)
    • EPITODES-JUST INJECTING THEM
  215. MOTHER GIVE ANTIBODIES(PASSIVE IMMUNITY) THAT LAST FOR ABOUT 6 MTHS KIDS START VACCINE @2MTHS TO ALLOW TIME FOR
    ANTIBODY TITERS(LEVELS) TO RISE TO PROTECTIVE LEVELS
  216. ABOUT 60% OF DEATHS EXCEPT FROM HIV, MALARIA, AND TB ARE
    PREVENTABLE THROUGH IMMUNIZATION WITH EXISTING AND NEWLY DEVELOPED VACCINES SUCH AS PNEUMONCOCCAL AND ROTAVIRUS
  217. HEP B VACCINE IS FOR
    HEPATITIS B
  218. ROTA IS VACCINE FOR
    ROTAVIRUS DIARRHEA
  219. DTaP IS VACCINE FOR
    • DIPTHERIA
    • PERTUSSIS
    • TETANUS
  220. Hib IS VACCINE FOR
    HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA TYPE B CHILDHOOD MENINGITIS
  221. PCV VACCINE IS FOR
    PNEUMOCOCCAL VACCINE FOR STREP PNEUMONIAE
  222. TIV IS VACCINE FOR
    TRIVALENT INACTIVATED INFLUENZA VACCINE
  223. MMR IS FOR
    • MUMPS
    • MEASLES
    • RUBELLA
  224. HEPA IS FOR
    HEPATITIS A
  225. MCV4 IS FOR
    MENIGNGOCOCCAL VACCINE FOR NIEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS
  226. IPV IS FOR
    INACTIVATED POLIL VACCINE
  227. 3RD CAUSE OF MENEGITIS OF COLLEGE AGE
    NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS
  228. CHILDHOOD MENINGITIS IS THE #1 CAUSE OF DEATH IN
    CHILDREN UNDER 5
  229. SOME OF THE REASON PARENT WONT VACCINATE THEIR KIDS?
    • AUTISM
    • RELIGION
  230. IgA COLOSTRUM AND IgG TRANSPLACENTA IS
    NATURAL PASSIVE IMMUNITY
  231. IMMUNITY DONATED FROM ANTISERUM ANTITOXINS, ANTIVENOM GAMMA GLOBULIN
    ARTIFICAL IMMUNITY
  232. ANTISERUM
    SERUM WITH HIGH CONCECTRATION OF ANTIBODIES
  233. ANTISERUM COMES FROM
    A DONOR ANIMAL OR PERSON THAT HAS HAD THE DISEASE OR HAS BEEN HYPERSENSITIZED THROUGH REPEAT LOSE DOSE INJECTIONS OVER TIME
  234. snake venom is antivenom is an antiserum. serum with
    antibodies to a specific snake venom
  235. Can either be natural (when u get a disease) or artifical (vaccination) in either case u develope antibodies
    Active immunity
  236. Can either be natural (colostrum & IgG transplacental antibodies) or artifical (receiving antiserum) in this case u dont make antibodies
    Passive immunity
  237. Immunity from T lymphocytes the are more efficient against
    • intracellular pathogens
    • protozoa
    • helminths
    • fungal infections
  238. T cells have antigens specific
    T cell receptors
  239. T cell are the most _____ in the general circulation
    numerous
  240. Just like antibodies these receptors are made of protein and have a variable amino acid region but they
    dont detach from the T cell
  241. Each cell has chemical markers called epitopes which are what T cell receptors
    specifically targets when attacking an antigen
  242. 2 types of T lymphocytes
    • helper T cells
    • delayed hypesensitivity T cells
  243. The first to arrive and reject foreign tissue transplant
    Helper T cells
  244. _______ prefers to invade T helper cells
    HIV
  245. Helper T cells stimulate _____cells to make antibodies
    B
  246. Responsible for delayed hypersensitivites: red, itchy and
    swollen skin several hours to days after exposure to the antigen
  247. PPD, poison ivy, cosmetic allergies and contact dermatitis is cause by
    Delayed hypersensitivity T cells
  248. HIV binds specifically to cell surface molecular receptors of the
    T lymphocyte
  249. Why dont the USA use Bacille Calmette Guerin(BCG) vaccine to prevent TB
    make the PPD positive
  250. CD8 are
    • cytotoxic T cells
    • suppressor T cells
  251. Chemical released from cytotoxic cells ____ the foreign cells
    Lyse
  252. Cytotoxic T cells: antiviral and anticancer cell that are attracted to cells tagged by T cell to cause
    death of the foreign cell
  253. This type of T cell regulate immune system homeostasis
    Suppressor
  254. Suppressor T cell can also suppress
    activity of other immune cells when necessary
  255. This T cell releases perforin proteins to destroy the cell
    cytotoxic
  256. The study of blood serum ant the antibodies and antigen which may be in the blood serum
    serology
  257. other fluids like semen, saliva, and CSF can be analyzed for the presents of
    antibodies and antigens
  258. The presence of antibodies or antigens in tested sample means exposure to an antigen such as
    • virus
    • protozoan
    • fungus
    • bacterium
  259. In all serologic test we are looking for
    good specificity and sensitivity there are no perfect test
  260. serologic test we are looking for
    antigen and antibody reactions which indicate exposure to a pathogen
  261. with this we are looking for a test that will only detect the antigen or antibody we are trying to diagnose and no closely related antigen or antibody
    test specificity
  262. in this test we are looking for the test that can detect even the tiniest trace of antibody or antigen in the pt
    test sensitivity
  263. ELISA means
    • enzyme
    • linked
    • immuno
    • sorbent
    • assay
  264. serologic test with poor test sensitivity have high rates of
    false negative results
  265. In elisa if the entire series of antibodies have attached tothe well then the enzyme linked antibody will cause the substrate to
    change colors and reveal a postive test

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