Bio Chapters 1 & 2

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rbracken
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55363
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Bio Chapters 1 & 2
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2010-12-12 17:49:18
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introductory biology
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Review of material for final exam chapters 1 and 2 Pearson Biology Concepts and Connections
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  1. Ecosystems
    consists of all the organisms living in a particular area as well as all the nonliving physical components of the environment with which the organisms interact, such as air, soil, water, and sunlight.

    Characterized by the cycling of chemical nutrients from the atmosphere and soil to producers to consumers to decomposers and back to the environment.

    • Energy only flows one way through an ecosystem from sun- to producers- to consumers- then exiting
    • as heat.
  2. Producers-
    plants and other photosynthetic organisms that provide food for a typical ecosystem
  3. consumers
    eat other plants and other animals
  4. decomposers
    bateria, fungi, and small animals in the soil that decompose wastes and the remains of dead organisms. Act as recyclers, changing complex matter into simpler mineral nutrients that plants can use.
  5. Predictions
    what you think will happen in the experiment- statement of expected outcome “if…. Then…. “If the battery is dead, then the lights wont come on”
  6. hypothesis-
    • a proposed explanation for a set of observations. A
    • good hypothesis leads to predictions that scientists can test by recording additional observations or by designing experiments.
  7. Metabolism
    totality of an organism’s chemical reactions
  8. Homeostasis
    the steady state of body functioning; a state of equilibrium characterized by a dynamic interplay between outside forces that tend to change an organism’s internal environment and the internal control mechanisms that oppose such changes.
  9. experimental group
    the variable being tested is present.
  10. control groups
    the variable being tested is absent
  11. evolution
    the theory that species living today are descendants of ancestral species. “descent with modification”.
  12. controlled experiment
    is designed to compare an experimental group with a control group. Ideally they will differ in only one factor that the experiment is designed to test
  13. prokaryotes
    simple and usually much smaller than a eukaryotic cell. Have DNA but no nucleus
  14. eukaryotes
    subdivided by internal membranes into many different functional compartments, or organelles, including the nucleus that houses the cell’s DNA
  15. Three domains
    Bacteria-consists of prokaryotes, are the most diverse and widespread prokaryotes and are now divided among several kingdoms.

    Archaea- many live in extreme environments, also includes multiple kingdoms.

    Eukarya- All have nucleus and other internal structures called organelles.
  16. 4 divisions of Eukarya
    Protista- diverse collection of mostly single celled organisms. Some like algae bake their food by photosynthesis. Some are animal like in that they eat other organisms.

    • Plantae- multicellular, plants which produce their own
    • food by photosynthesis and have cells with rigid walls made of cellulose.

    Fungi- diverse group that includes molds, yeasts, and mushrooms. They are decomposers and help break down the remains of dead organisms and organic wastes.

    Animalia- obtain food by ingestion which means they eat other organisms. Most are motile and are made of cells that lack rigid walls.
  17. Technology
    goal is to apply scientific knowledge for some specific purpose. Technology is driven by necessity.
  18. theory
    is much broader in scope than a hypothesis. Explains a great diversity of observations and is supported by a large and usually growing body of evidence. Most continue to generate new hypothesis which can be tested.
  19. Explain how the web of relationships gives an ecosystem its structure
    The hierarchy of organization says that with each step upward, new properties emerge as a result of interactions among components of the lower levels.
  20. Describe the seven features that are common to all living organisms
    - Order, complex organization

    - Regulation, homeostasis of some sort

    - Growth and development

    • - Energy processing, must take in energy to
    • perform activity

    - Responds to environment,

    - Reproduction, must reproduce their own kind.

    • - Evolutionary adaptation, evolving over many
    • generations to best suit their environment
  21. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
    • - Similarities, enclosed by a membrane that regulates
    • passage of materials between the cell and its surroundings. Use its DNA as its genetic information.

    - Differences- pro, usually much smaller, no nucleus. Eukaryotic, subdivided by internal membranes into different functional compartments, has a nucleus.
  22. Observations
    that you see or can record that can be used to develop your hypothesis
  23. independent variable
    we are actually testing the factor we are manipulating. Usually prefaced with an “if”
  24. dependent variable
    the thing that actually can change in response to the changes in the experimental variable.
  25. steps in the scientific
    method
    - Observations

    - Questions

    - Hypothesis

    - Predict

    - Test or experiment

    - Conclude
  26. Matter
    anything that occupies space and has mass, or an object’s weight
  27. Atom
    indivisible, smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element.
  28. Molecule
    two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
  29. Element
    Element- is a substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by ordinary chemical means.
  30. Proton
    Proton- subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge
  31. Neutron
    Neutron- has no electrical charge

    
  32. atomic number
    atomic number- the unique number of protons in an atom, also the number of electrons unless noted.
  33. Atomic mass
    Atomic mass- approximately equal to its mass number- sum of its protons and neutrons
  34. Electron shell
    Electron shell- energy levels surrounding the nucleus of an atom. Size depends on the amount of electrons orbiting the nucleus.
  35. Chemical bond
    Chemical bond- when two atoms with incomplete outer shells react, each either shares, donates, or receives out electrons so that both end up with completed outer shells. This helps the atoms stay close together.
  36. Ionic bond
    Ionic bond- two ions with opposite charges attract each other, when the attraction holds them together its called an ionic bond.
  37. Ions
    Ions- atom or molecule with an electrical charge resulting from a gain or loss of one or more electrons.
  38. Covalent bond
    Covalent bond- strong chemical bond where two atoms share one or more pairs of outer shell electrons.
  39. Polar
    Polar- has an unequal distribution of charges and is slightly negative at the oxygen end of the molecule and slightly positive at each of the two hydrogen ends. H2O is polar.
  40. Nonpolar
    Nonpolar- when two identical atoms exert an equal pull in the electrons- sharing electrons equally
  41. Electronegativity
    Electronegativity- an atoms attraction for shared electrons
  42. Hydrogen bond
    Hydrogen bond- weak sharing of electrons which happens when molecules are polar, always on the hydrogen, helps structure and orient the molecules because of the charges
  43. Cohesion
    Cohesion- tendency of the molecules to stick together- occurs with hydrogen bonding.
  44. Surface tension
    Surface tension- measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Hydrogen bonds give water unusually high surface tension.
  45. Temperature
    Temperature- measures the intensity of heat- the average speed of molecules rather than the total amount of heat energy
  46. Heat
    Heat- amount of energy associated with the movement of atoms and molecules in a body of matter.
  47. Isotope
    Isotope- an atom of an element that has the same atomic number, but some may differ in mass number
  48. Radioisotope
    Radioisotope- an atom in which the nucleus decays spontaneously giving off particles and energy.
  49. Chemical reaction
    Chemical reaction- making and breaking of chemical bonds,leading to changes in the composition of matter.
  50. Compound
    Compound- a substance containing two or more elements in a fixed ratio like table salt- one sodium to one chlorine
  51. Aqueous solutions
    Aqueous solutions- solution where water is the solvent
  52. Solution
    Solution- liquid consisting of a uniform mixture of two or more substances.
  53. Solvent
    Solvent- dissolving agent
  54. Solutes
    Solutes- substance dissolved in the solvent
  55. pH
    pH- used to describe how basic or acidic a solution is, each unit is a tenfold change in concentration of hydrogen in the solution.
  56. Acid
    Acid- a compound that donates hydrogen ions to solutions
  57. Base
    Base- compound that accepts hydrogen ions and removes them from solution
  58. Buffer system
    Buffer system- minimize shifts in pH, ex: carbonic acid and bicarb in the blood stream
  59. Buffer
    Buffer- substances that minimize changes in pH
  60. What important elements make up the human body?
    Calcium for bones and nerve function, phosphorus for bones, potassium for muscle and nerve function, sulfur for proteins, trace elements like iron and others are less than 1% of body weight

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