chapter 27 reproductive

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12olokun28
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55394
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chapter 27 reproductive
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2010-12-12 22:04:46
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Reproductive system
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Anatomy reproductive system.
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  1. What is the function of the reproductive system?
    To produce gametes (sex cells)
  2. Name the primary reproductive organ?
    Gonads
  3. What is included in the reproductive system?
    The primary reproductive organs, duct system, accessory reproductive organs, & external genitalia.
  4. What are the gametes?
    Sex cells
  5. Name the three sex hormones.
    Testosterone, estrogen & progestrone.
  6. Name the five areas of the duct system in males.
    Seminiferous tubules, epididymis, ductus deferens (vas deferens), ejaculatory duct & the uretha.
  7. What are the accessory organs in the male reproductive system?
    Seminal vesicles, protrate, & bulbourethral glands.
  8. What are the external genitalia of the male reproductive system?
    Scrotum & penis
  9. Where are the testes located?
    Hanging out in the scrotum outside the body.
  10. What are the six functions of testosterone?
    Stimulates spermatogenesis, maturation of spermatoza (sperm cells), maintains accessory organs, development of secondary sex characteristics, stimulates growth & metabolism, & brain development (sex drive, sexual behavior)
  11. What is the shape of the seminiferous tubules?
    U-shaped
  12. What is the seminiferous tubules connected to?
    A single straight tubule.
  13. Where does the straight tubule enter on the testis?
    The mediastinum
  14. How are straight tubules arranged within the mediastinum?
    Extensively interconnected, forming a maze of passageways known as rete testis.
  15. What ductules connect the rete testis to the epididymis?
    Efferent tubules.
  16. What do the interstitial cells produce?
    Androgens
  17. The septa partition the testis into compartments named what?
    Lobules.
  18. What do the lobules house?
    Seminiferous tubules.
  19. What fills the external spaces between the tubules?
    Loose connnective tissue.
  20. What surrounds each tubule?
    A delicate capsule.
  21. What is within the spaces (loose c.t) of the tubules?
    Numerous blood vessels & large interstitial cells.
  22. What does the seminiferous tubules produce?
    Sperm
  23. What are the five important functions of the nurse cells?
    Maintenance of blood testis barrier, support of spermatogenesis, support of spermaiogenesis, secretion of inhibin, & secretion of androgen binding protein.
  24. Describe the blood-testis barrier.
    Tight junctions between extensions of nurse cells isolate the luninal portion of the seminiferous tubule from the surrounding interstitial fluid.
  25. Where does spematogenesis begin?
    At the outer most layer of cells in the seminiferous tubules.
  26. Define meiosis.
    A form of cell division that produces gametes containing 1/2 the normal number of chromosomes.
  27. How does mitosis differ from meiosis?
    The number of chromosomes are reduced by 1/2. From 46 to 23.
  28. From beginning through maturation, what are the steps of spermatogenesis?
    Spermatogonia, meiosis I, meiosis II
  29. What does the head of the spermatozoa contain?
    Acrosomal cap and densely packed chromosomes.
  30. What does the neck of the spermatozoa contain?
    Both centrioles of original spermatid.
  31. What does the middle piece of the spermatozoa contain?
    Mitochondria & microtubules.
  32. What is unique about the tail of the spermatozoa?
    It's the only flagellum in the human.
  33. What are the contents of semen?
    Sperm, seminal fluid,& enzymes
  34. Define of the process of oogenesis?
    Production of female gametes.
  35. How does oogenesis differ from spermatogenesis?
    Oogenia (stem cells) complete their mitotic divisions before birth.
  36. During puberty what triggers the beginning of the ovarian cycle?
    (FSH) Follicle stimulating hormone.
  37. What is the most important estrogen?
    Estradiol. It dominates prior to ovulation.
  38. When is the ovarian cycle?
    21-35 days.
  39. What are the important functions of estrogen?
    Stimulates bone & muscle growth, maintains female secondary sex characteristics, affects CNS activity (sexual drive/behavior), maintains functions of reproductive glands/organs, & initiates repair & growth of the uterine lining.
  40. What is the purpose of progestrone?
    Continue the preparation of the uterus for pregnancy.
  41. What are the six steps in the ovarian cycle?
    Primodial follice-primary follicle, secondary follicle, tertiary (mature follicle), ovulation, & corpus albicans.
  42. What hormones are used in the ovarian cycle?
    Estradiol, lutenizing hormone, & progesterone.
  43. What controls the uterine cycle?
    The ovarian cycle.
  44. What are the 3 phases of the uterine cycle?
    Menses (day 1-7), proliferation (day 7-14), & secretory (day 14-28).
  45. Name the hormones responsible of mammary gland development.
    Prolactin & growth hormone.
  46. What is oxytocin responsible for in the mammary glands?
    Contraction of smooth muscules.

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