Chapters 3 & 4
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carbon based molecules
organic compounds with the same molecular formula but differnt structures and, therefore, different properties
chemical groups that affect a molecule's fonction by participating in chemical reactions in characteristic ways.
they are polar because their oxygen or nitrogen atoms exert a strong pull on shared electron and they tend to be hydrophilic so they are soluble
hydrogen bonded to oxygen which is then bonded to the carbon skeleton. (ethenol)
composed of a nitrogen bonded to two hydrogen atoms and the carbon skeleton.
consists of a carbon double bonded to an oxygen and also to a hydroxl group.
consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms and usually connects to the carbon skeleton by one of the oxygens.
Identifying group attached to an amino acid
- large biological molecules, sometimes thousands of covalently connected atoms-
- nucleic acids
class of molecules ranging from small sugars to large polysaccharides like in pasta and potatoes
two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis
most common is sucrose- one glucose and one fructose
are diverse compounds that are grouped together because they share one trait- they mix poorly with water, or not at all
mostly carbon and hydrogen atoms linked by nonpolar bonds and are hydrophobic
have the maximum number of hydrogens attached
double bonds in the carbon chain keep the maximum number of hydrogen atoms from binding do the carbon skeleton
major component of the cell membrane. structurally similar to fats but only have two fatty acids attached to the glycerol instead of three. in place of the third is a phonspate group. tails are hydrophobic and heads are hydrophylic
a polymer constructed from amino acid monomers each having a distict and unique three dimensional structure that corresponds to a specific function.
when the cells join amino acids together in dehydration reaction and link the carboxyl group to the amino group of the next- a water molecule is produced. the covalent link that results is called a peptide bond
a protein's unique sequence of amino acids, determined by inherited genetic information in which even slight changes may affect the overall shape and function
refers to the overall three dimensional shape of a polypeptide- look globular or fibrous. results from interactions among the R groups in the amino acids that make up the polypeptide. the hydrophobic groups will cluster and hydrogen bonding helps it keep its shape.
specialized macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
an iron containing protein in red blood cells that reversibly binds O2 and transports it to the body tissues
organic monomer consisting of a five carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and phosphate group. these are the building blocks of nucleic acids
one of two types of olymers know as nucleic acids
the intermediary nucleic acid that DNA uses to get genetic information out to work
a chemical coumpound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen
the chain carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule
digestion of polymers by the cell so that they can be consumed. its the reverse of dehydration reaction.
breaking between the bonds of monomers by adding a water to the bond
dehydration synthesis (condensation reactions)
process in which cells link monomers together to form polymers.
removes a molecule of water. a new covalent bond forms linking the monomers together.
building blocks of polymers.
carbohydrate monomers or single unit sugars
a storage polysaccharide in plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers. they coil into a helical shape because of the angles of the bonds joinging their glucose units
most abundant organic compound on earth. forms cablelike fibrils in the walls of plant cells. it is a bolymer of glucose
a carboxyl group and a hydrocarbon chain
fat- a large lipid made from two smaller molecules- glycerol and fatty acids. main function is energy storage and also cushions vital organs and insulates the body.
sterol compounds (steroids)
lipids whose carbon skeleton contain four fused rings
common component in animal cell membranse and animal cells also use it as a starting material for making other steroids like sex hormones. the difference in steriods is owed to the chemimcal grous attached to the rings.
constructed of an amino group and a carboxyl group (makes it an acid). the R goup is different for each amino acid
chain of amino acids
second level of protein structure where parts of the polypeptide coil or fold into a patten. this can result in an alpha helix or pleated sheet. these sheets are often the core of globular proteins.
proteins that consist of two or more polypeptide chains or subuints. the quaternary structure results from the association of the subuits.
process in which the oplypeptide chain unravels losing its specific shape and causing the protein's function to be altered.
DNA and RNA
A, T, C, G (U in RNA)
photo taken through a microscope
passes a visable light through a specimen. glass leses in the microscope bend the light to magnify the image of the specimen
all living things are composed of cells and all cells come from other cells- circa mid 1800's
Tranismission electron microscope
specimens are cut into exremely thin sections and stained with atoms of heavy metals- then light is passed through the specimen
scanning electron microscope
shows the surface of an organism by projecting a beam of light onto the surface of the cell that has been coated with a thin film of metal
the membrane that sets a cell off from its surroundings and acts as a selective barrier to the passage of ions and molecules into and out of the cell. consists of a phospholipid bilayer in which are embedded molecules of protein and cholesterol
entire area between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
little organs in the cytoplasm that perform specific functions in the cell.
large central vacuole
membraneous sac that serves a hydrolytic function and helps the cell grow in size by absorbing water and enlarging and it can store vital chemicals or waste broducts.
composed of ribosomal RNA and proteins, snthesize proteins according to directions from the DNA
surrounded by a porous nuclear envelope, the nucleus contains the DNA that carries the cell's hereditary blueprint and directs its activities, the nucleolus assembles the ribosomes
carry out cellular respiration using the energy in food to make ATP for cellular work
are present in plants and some protists, converting solar energy to chemmical energy in sugars. these organelles may have evolved by endosymbiosis of prokaryote cells in a host cell
a protective layer external to the plasma membrane in plant cells, bacteria, fungi and some protists. protects the cell and helps maintain its shape
all cells have what 3 things in common?
- plasma membrane
describe prokaryotic cells
- have a pill shape
- have a nucleoid where DNA clusters
- has ribosomes
- plasma membrane
- rigid cell wall
- jelly like capsule surrounding the outside
- has a flagella for locomotion
describe an Animal Eukaryotic cell
- plasma membrane and cytoskeleton
- organelles- mitochondria, lysosome, peroxisome, golgi apparatus, smooth ER, rough ER, ribosomes, centriole, nucleus with DNA material enclosed
describe a eukaryotic plant cell
- cell wall and cytoskeleton
- central vacuole
- rough ER
- smooth ER
double membrane perforated with protein lined poers that control the flow of materials into and out of the nucleus.
prominent structure in the nucleus, is where a special type of RNA called ribosomal RNA is synthesized according to instructions in the DNA.
- some of these membranes are physically connected and some are related by the transfer of the membrane segments by tiny vesicles. this system includes the nuclear envelope, entoplasmic reticulum, golgi appartus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane.
- help synthesize, store and export molecules.
does not have attached ribosomes. helps in metabolic processes. enzymes in the smooth ER help synthesize lipids and oils, phosphlipids and steroids. helps store calcium ions in muscle cells.
makes more membrane, phospholipids made by enzymes of th ER are inserted into the membrane. vesicles break off of this and send out things in vesicles. these things are transporters to other otganelles in the cell.
flattened sacs stacked on top of each other. these are not interconnected like the ER sacs. there could be only a few or a hundred. more protein secretion means more golgi stacks.
is the molecular warehouse and finishing factory. recieves incomplete proteins and carbs and finishes them before shipping them out.
enclosure where products are contained for entry into and out of the cell and organelles.
consists of digestive enzyomes enclosed in a membranous sac. enclose then digest things within the cell
protein fibers that extend throughout the cytoplasm of a cell and function like a skeleton in providing for both structural support and cell motility.
what components are in the nucleus?
- nuclear envelope
chloroplasts vs. mitochondria
mitochondria- carry out cellular respiration and convert chemical energy in foods to ATP for the cell. has two membranes with embedded proteins with two internal compartments. has mitochondiral matrix which contains DNA and ribosomes. inner membrane is highly folded with proteins that make ATP embedded in it.
Chloroplasts- photosynthesis is carried out here. are contained inside the plant cell. internal membranes partition the chlorplast into compartments. has an inner and outer membrane, inner has thinck fluid called stroma which has the DNA and ribosomes of the chloroplast. has interconnected sacs called thylakoids that are stacked like poker chips. each stack is called granum- this is where the solar energy is converted.
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