psych final.txt

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psych final.txt
2010-12-12 22:00:40
ab psych

ab psych final
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  1. antisocial personality disorder
    persons tend to have long histories of failing to comply with social norms, violating the rights of others, and engaging in behavior that most persons would find unacceptable andtend to be irresponsible, impulsive, and deceitful, lack a conscience and empathy, and selfishly take what they want and do as they please without guilt, regret, or remorse.
  2. avoidant personality disorder
    persons are extremely sensitive to the opinions of others and therefore avoid most relationships
  3. borderline personality disorder
    persons lead tumultuous lives, characterized by patterns of unstable moods and relationships, impulsivity, coupled with a very poor self-image and are at great risk for suicidal behavior
  4. histrionic personality disorder
    persons tend to be overly dramatic and often appear as if they are acting.
  5. narcissistic personality disorder
    persons show an exaggerated and unreasonable sense of self-importance and preoccupation with receiving attention to such an extent that they lack sensitivity and compassion for other people.
  6. obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
    persons show a fixation on things being done the right way to such an extent that it prevents them from actually completing much of anything.
  7. paranoid personality disorder
    persons in this disorder are excessively mistrustful and suspicious of others, without any justification, and assume that others are out to harm or trick them.
  8. personality disorder
    a person who endures patterns of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and oneself that are exhibited in a wide range of social and personal contexts and are inflexible and maladaptive, and cause either significant functional impairment or subjective distress
  9. schizoid personality disorder
    persons show a pervasive pattern of detachment from social relationships and a very limited range of emotions in interpersonal situations.
  10. schizotypal personality disorder
    persons with this disorder are typically socially isolated like those with schizoid personality disorder, think and behave in odd and unusual ways, and tend to be highly suspicious and hold odd beliefs
  11. alogia
    the absence of speech, includes brief replies to questions with little content, delayed comments or slowed responses toquestions or as disinterest in conversation
  12. anhedonia
    a lack of pleasure, or indifference to activities that would normally be considered pleasurable, including eating, social interactions, and sexual relations
  13. associative splitting
    breaking of associative threads or the breakdown of forces that connect one function to the next (inability to keep a constant train of thought)
  14. avolition
    (aka apathy) the inability to initiate and presist in activities. persons show little interest in performing even the most basic daily functions such as personal hygiene
  15. brief psychotic disorder
    persons experience 1+ positive symptions of schizo (ie delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized speech or behavior) within one month; often percipitated by an extremely stressful situation and commonly dissipates on its own.
  16. catatonia
    motor dysfunctions that range from wild agitation to immobility
  17. catatonic immobility
    the person may hold unusual postures for hours on end
  18. catatonic type of schizophrenia
    persons show unusual motor responses and odd mannerisms, show echolalia (repeating or mimicking the words of others) and echopraxia (imitating the movements of others)
  19. delusional disorder
    persons display a persistent belief that is contrary to reality in the absence of other schizophrenia symptoms. persons do not have flat affect, anhedonia, or other negative symptons of schizo, they may become socially isolated as a function of their delusions that tend to be long-standing.
  20. disorganized speech
    several, often frustrating forms of communication problems in persons with schizo
  21. disorganized type of schizophrenia
    persons show marked disruptions in their speech and behavior, including flat or inappropriate affect, self-absorption
  22. expressed emotion
    a term describing a particular family communication style that is related to schizo relapse
  23. flat affect
    (aka affective flattening) occurs in 1/4 of persons with schizo & refers to the absence of normally expected emotional responses; show little change in facial expression but not the experience of appropriate emotions, which suggests that flat affect in schizo may represent difficulty in expressing emotion not an inability to feel emotion
  24. hebephrenia
    silly and immature emotionality
  25. inappropriate affect
    laughing or crying at improper times
  26. negative symptom
    indicate the absence or insufficiency of normal behavior and include emotional or social withdrawal, apathy and poverty of thought or speech
  27. paranoia
    delusions of grandeur and persecution
  28. paranoid type of schizophrenia
    these persons have hallucinations and delusions, intacto cognitive skills and affect and do not generally show disorganized speech or flat affect
  29. positive symptom
    refers to active manifestations of abnormal behavior or an excess or distortion of normal behavior
  30. psychotic behavior
    characterized by unusual behaviors but it really refers to either delusions or hallucinations
  31. residual type of schizophrenia
    persons have had at least one episode of schizophrenia but are no longer displaying major symptoms, often display residual symptoms (ie social withdrawal, bizarre thoughts, inactivity or flat affect)
  32. schizoaffective disorder
    persons suffer from symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder; such persons do not tend to get better on their own
  33. schizophrenia
    characterized by a broad spectrum of cognitive and emotional dysfunctions that include hallucinations and delusions, disorganized speech and behavior, and inappropriate emotions
  34. schizophreniform disorder
    persons who have experienced symptoms of schizophrenia for a few months only and usually resume normal lives
  35. schizophrenogenic mother
    a time to describe a mother whose cold, cominant, and rejecting nature was thought to cause schizo in her children
  36. token economy
    residents earn access to meals and small luxuries by behaving appropriately
  37. neuroleptic/antipsychotic drugs
    these drugs affect positive symptoms of schizo (reduce/eliminate hallucinations & delusions) and help persons think more clearly; not equally effective for all persons and often involve a trial and error process to find a medication that works best; conventional antipsychotics work in ~60% of persons but have several unpleasant side effects
  38. tardive dyskinesia
    involves involuntary movements of the tongue, face, mouth, or jaw and can include prorusions of the tongue, puffing of the cheeks, puckering of the mouth and chewing movements. results from high doses of antipsychotic meds
  39. agnosia
    an inability to recognize and name objects
  40. alzheimer's disease
    the "strange disease of the cerebral cortex" that causes "atypical form of senile dementia", discovered by Alois Alzheimer in 1906
  41. amnestic disorder
    characterized by circumscribed loss of memory and an inability to transfer information into long-term memory.
  42. aphasia
    difficulty with language
  43. asperger's disorder
    persons suffer from significant impairment in the ability to engage in meaningful social interaction
  44. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    persons with inattention, overactivity, and impulsivity. persons start tasks but rarely finish them, have trouble concentrating and do not seem to pay attentino when others speak.
  45. autistic disorder
    a childhood disorder characterized by significant impairment in social interactinos and communication and by restricted patterns of behavior, interest, and activities
  46. childhood disintegrative disorder
    pervasive developmental disorder involving severe regression in language, adaptive behavior and meotor skills after a 2- to 4- year period of normal development
  47. delirium
    characterized by impaired consciousness and cognition that develops somewhat rapidly over the course of several hours or days
  48. dementia
    is a cognitive disorder that includes a gradual deterioration of brain functioning that affects judgment, memory, language, and other advanced cognitive processes.
  49. dementia of the alzheimer's type
    multiple cognitive deficits that develop gradually and steadily. there is predominant impairment in memory, orientation, judgment and reasoning and this feature includes inability to integrate new information and failure to learn new associations, forgetting important events or losing objects, narrowed interest in routine activities, loss of interest in others
  50. down syndrome
    caused by an extra 21st chromosome and is sometimes referred to as trisomy 21. caused by the failure of cell division of chromosome 21. associated with characteristic facial features, cognital heart malformations, and dementia of the alzheimer's type
  51. expressive language disorder
    an individual's problems in spoken communication, as measured by significantly low scores on standardized tests of expressive language test scores. limited vocabulary or errors in verb tense
  52. facial agnosia
    an inability to recognize familiar faces may also occur and is extremely distressing to family members
  53. head trauma
    typically caused by accidents and can lead to cognitive impairments in children and adults, with memory loss being the most common symptom. an external factor that can cause dementia
  54. human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)
    causes AIDS and also causes dementia. HIV seems responsible for the neurological impairment
  55. huntington's disease
    a genetic disorder that initially affects motor movements, typically in the form of chorea (involuntary limb movements)
  56. learning disorder
    problems related to academic performance in reading, mathematics, and writing that is substantially below what would be expected given the person's age, IQ, and education
  57. mathematics disorder
    an achievement below expected performance in mathematics
  58. mental retardation
    a disorder of childhood that involves below average intellectual and adaptive functioning
  59. parkinsons disease
    a degenerative brain disorder that affects about 1 out of 1,000 people worldwide. motor problems are characteristic of this disorder, and include stooped posture, slow body movements, tremors, and jerkiness in walking, speech tends to be very soft and monotone
  60. pervasive developmental disorder
    persons have problems with language, socialization and cognition
  61. reading disorder
    a significant discrepancy between a person's reading achievement and what would be expected for someone of the same age.
  62. selective mutism
    developmental disorder characterized by the individuals consistent failure to speek in specific social situations despite speaking in other situations
  63. stuttering
    disturbance in the fluency and time patterning of speech
  64. susceptibility
    an increase risk of developing a disorder
  65. tic disorder
    disruption in early development involving involuntary motor movements or vocalizations
  66. vascular dementia
    a progressive brain disorder that is the second leading cause of dementia next to alzheimers disease
  67. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
    caused by thalamic damage resulting from stroke or, more commonly, chronic and heavy alcohol use. amnestic disorder.
  68. Drug treatments & drug classifications for ADHD
    methylphenidate: ritalin, metadate, concerta; d-amphetamine: dexedrine, detrostat (effective in 70% of cases); adderall (a longer-acting version of these psychostimulants, reduces the need for multiple doses during the day & has similar positive effects)
  69. civil commitment law
    legal procedings that determine a person has a mental illness and may be hospitalized, even involuntarily
  70. clinical efficacy axis
    one of a proposed set of guildelines for evaluating clinical interventions on the evidence of their effectiveness
  71. clinical utility axis
    one of a proposed set of guidelines for evaluating clinical interventions by whether they can be applied effectively and cost effectively in real clinical settings
  72. competence
    ability of legal defendants to participate in their own defense and understand the charges and the roles of the trial participants
  73. criminal commitment
    legal procedure by which a person who is found not guilty of a crime by reason of insanity must be confined in a psychiatric hospital
  74. dangerousness
    tendency to violence that, contrary to popular opinion, is not more likely among mental patients
  75. deistitutionalization
    systematic removal of people with severe mental illness or mental retardation out of institutions like psychiatric hospitals
  76. diminished capacity
    inability of a person to understand the nature of his behavior such that there can be no criminal intent
  77. duty to warn
    mental health professional's responsibility to break confidentiality and notify the potential victim whom a client has specifically threatened
  78. expert witness
    person who because of special training and experience is allowed to offer opinion testimony in legal trials
  79. mental illness
    term formally used to mean psychological disorder but less preferred because it implies that the causes of the disorder can be found in a medial disease process
  80. transinstitutionalization
    movement of people with severe mental illness from large psychiatric hospitals to smaller group residences
  81. informed consent
    ethical requirement whereby research subjects agree to participate in a research study only after they receive full disclosure about the nature of the study and their role in it
  82. O'Conner v. Donaldson
    a state cannot constintutionally confine a non-dangerous individual who is capable of surviving safely in freedom by himself or with the help of willing and responsible family and friends
  83. Tarasoff v. Regents of the UC
    the court ruled that therapists must warn persons at risk of harm by their clients
  84. Wyatt v. Stickney
    set standards for minimum staff-to-patient ratios, structural requirements, and that facilities make positive efforts to attain treatment goals for their patients
  85. Riggins v. Nevada
    ruling stated that because of the potential negative side effects, people cannot be forced to take antipsychotic medication
  86. Protection and Advocacy for Mentally Ill Individuals Act
    established a series of protection and advocacy agencies in each state to investigate allegations of abuse and neglect to act as legal advocates
  87. Sexual Psychopaths law
    persons with criminal propensitiesto the commission of sex offenses
  88. MMPI
    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory test is almost 90% accurate in revealing malingering in people caliming to have posttraumatic stress disorder and mental health professionals appear capable of providing reliable information about a persons competence, or ability to understand and assist with a defense
  89. Axis II
    Personality disorders and mental retardation (paranoid pd, schizoid pd, schizotypal pd, borderline pd, antisocial pd, narcissistic pd, histrionic pd, avoidant pd, dependent pd, ocd)
  90. DSM Categorical vs. Dimensional
    categorical is limited to a yes or no response to whether the patient has the disorder or not; dimensional allows a 3-point scale to decide whether the patient has the disorder, "yes, not sure, no"
  91. Eugen Bleuler
    a swiss psychiatrist who was the first to introduce the term schizophrenia, believed that the core of schizo was in an associative splitting of basic personality functions
  92. Emil Kraepelin
    a german psychiatrist who provided the most enduring description of schizo, he combined catatonia (alternating immobility and excited agitation), hebephrenia (silly and immature emotionality), and paranoia (delusions of grandeur and persecution) and labeled them as falling under the heading dementia praecox; determined this as a manic-depressive illness by emphasizing onsent and outcome
  93. Personality disorder clusters
    A. is the odd or eccentric cluster and includes paranoid, schizoid, and schizotypal pd; B. is the dramatic, emotional, or erratic cluster and includes antisocial, borderline, histrionic and narcissistic pd; C. is the anxious or fearful cluster and includes avoidant, dependent and ocd pd
  94. Structural damage with schizo
    enlarged lateral ventricles, frontal lobes tend to be less active (hypofrontality) or tend to e too active (hyperfontality)