APES Chapter 6 Vocab

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xjusjaysonx
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APES Chapter 6 Vocab
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2010-12-12 22:15:43
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Chapter 6 Vocab
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  1. Coral reefs
    form in clear, warm coastal waters of the tropics and subtropics. Marine equivalents of tropical rain forests.
  2. Plankton
    Weakly swimming, free-floating organisms/ producers that support most aquatic food chains and food webs
  3. Zooplankton
    primary consumers (herbivores) that feed on phytoplankton and secondary consumers that feed on other zooplankton. Range from single celled protozoa to large invertebrates like jellyfish
  4. Ultraplankton
    Extremely small photosynthetic bacteria responsible for 70% of the primary productivity near the ocean surface
  5. Nekton
    • Strongly swimming consumers such as fish, turtles, and
    • whales
  6. Benthos
    Bottom dwellers such as barnacles and oysters that anchor themselves to one spot, worms that burrow into sand or mud, and lobsters and crabs that walk about on the bottom
  7. Decomposers
    Break down organic compounds in the dead bodies and wasters of aquatic organisms into simple nutrient compounds for use by aquatic producers
  8. Euphotic zone
    upper layer sunlight can penetrate
  9. Estuary
    Warm, nutrient-rich, shallow water that extends from the high-tide mark on land to the gently sloping, shallow edge of the continental shelf. Human activities easily affect it. Contains 90% of all marine species and is the site of most large commercial marine fisheries.
  10. Coastal Wetlands
    land areas covered with water all or part of the year (river mouths, inlets, bays, sounds, sat marshes (in temperate zones), and mangrove forests (tropical zones)
  11. Zones in order
    Euphotic, Bathyal, Abyssal
  12. Intertidal zone
    The area of shoreline between low and high tides
  13. Open sea
    Deep water consisting of euphotic (brightly lit upper zone where floating and drifting plankton carry on photosynthesis, low nutrient levels, high dissolved oxygen levels, large predatory fish), bathyal zone (dimly lit middle zone that does not contain photosynthesizing producers because of lack of sunlight, zoo plankton and smaller fish the migrate to feed on surface at night), abyssal zone (dark, very cold, little dissolved oxygen, enough nutrients)
  14. Lentic
    standing bodies of freshwater
  15. Lotic
    Flowing bodies of freshwater
  16. Lakes
    large natural bodies of standing freshwater formed when precipitation, runoff, and groundwater seepage fill depressions in the earth’s surface.
  17. Layers of the lake from top to bottom
    Littoral, limnetic,profundal, benthic
  18. Oligotrophic lake
    poorly nourished (deep and has steepbanks) (newly formed with small supply of plant nutrien
  19. Eutrophic lake
    Large supply of nutrients (mostly nitratesand phosphates) needed by producers
  20. Cultural eutrophication
    Human inputs of nutrients fromatmosphere and from nearby urban andagricultural areas accelerate eutrophication of lakes
  21. Mesotrophic lakes
    In between oligotrophic and eutrophic
  22. Surface Water
    Precipitation that does not sink into the ground or evaporate
  23. Runoff
    Surface water flows into streams
  24. Watershed/drainage basin:
    land area that delivers runoff,sediment, and dissolved substances to a stream
  25. Three zones of water transfer
    Source Zone (Highest),Transition Zone (middle), Floodplain Zone (end)
  26. Indland wetlands
    lands covered with freshwater all or partof the time and located away from coastal areas (marshes, swamps, prairiepotholes)
  27. Coastal zone
    Warm, nutrient-rich, shallow waterthat extends from the high-tide mark on land to the gently sloping, shallowedge of the continental shelf. Human activities easily affect it. Contains 90%of all marine species and is the site of most large commercial marinefisheries.

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