Mustculoskeletal Dysfunction-Patho-Definitions.txt

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Mustculoskeletal Dysfunction-Patho-Definitions.txt
2010-12-12 22:48:46

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  1. Open fracture (def)
    break in the skin, often with exposed bone
  2. closed fracture (def)
    skin stays intact
  3. comminuted fracture (def)
    bone is broken into many pieces
  4. green-stick fracture (def)
    common in young children, bone is cracked/fractured in many places but stays in one piece
  5. nonunion (def)
    failure of bone ends to grow together, gap is filled with weaker fibrocartilaginous tissue
  6. delayed union (def)
    failure of fracture to heal in 8-9 months
  7. malunion (def)
    healing in a non-anatomical position due to unequal stress, muscle pulling, or gravity
  8. Myoglobinuria (def)
    excess myoglobin in urine
  9. Rhabdomyolysis (def)
    destruction of skeletal muscle accompanied by myoglobinuria, and may lead to renal failure
  10. subluxation (def)
    a partial misalignment of a joint, common in vertebra
  11. dislocation (def)
    a complete misalightment of a joint
  12. sprain (def)
    torn or stretched ligament
  13. strain (def)
    torn or stretched tendon (muscle--tendon--bone)
  14. avulsion (def)
    complete separation of tendon or ligament from bone
  15. scoliosis (def)
    lateral deviation of the vertebrae causing a C or S shape of spine
  16. osteoporosis (def)
    bone density > 2.5 standard deviations below density of a 30yo Caucasian woman
  17. rickets (def)
    childhood bone disorder a/w low vitamin D
  18. genu valgum (def)
    knock knees
  19. genu varum (def)
  20. osteomalacia (def)
    bone disorder in adults a/w low vitamin D
  21. osteomyelitis (def)
    bone infection
  22. multiple myeloma (def)
    B-cell cancer (classified as a hematlogic malignancy) where one deformed B-cell produces tons of IgG
  23. muscular dystrophy (def)
    a simple and concise definition is not possible due to the fact this designation refers to more than 30 inherited disorders all causing muscle weakness
  24. fibromyalgia (def)
    chronic musculoskeletal syndrome characterized by diffuse pain, fatigue, and tender joints
  25. osteoarthritis (def)
    "noninflammatory" joint disease
  26. rheumatoid arthritis (def)
    chronic, systemic, autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation of connective tissue in synovial joints
  27. systemic lupus erythematosus (def)
    inflammatory autoimmune disease that affects multiple organs and is characterized by exacerbation and remissions
  28. arthralgia (def)
    joint pain and inflammation
  29. contractures (def)
    shortening and hardening of muscles, tendons, and tissues leading to decreased function and deformity
  30. alopecia (def)
    loss of hair
  31. juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (def)
    chronic, RA in children that often resolves by early adulthood but with residual joint damage
  32. tophus or tophi (def)
    a deposit of uric acid salts at the surface of joints, in skin, or in cartilage
  33. uveitis (def)
    inflammation of the pigmented layer of the eye
  34. ankylosis (def)
    stiffening or immobility of a joint due to bone fusion
  35. gout (def)
    inflammatory response to urate chrysalis in joints and soft tissue