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Kretchmer's body types
- asthenic- lean and narrowly built, with a deficiency of thickness in their overall bodies.
- athletic- broad shoulders, excellent musculature, a deep chest, a flat stomach, and powerful legs.
- pyknics- medium build, with a propensity to be rotund, sort of soft appearing with rounded shoulders, broad faces and short stubby hands.
- 1.) endomorphy- soft, fat people
- 2.) mesomorphy- muscular/athletic
- 3.) ectomorphy- skinny, flat, fragile
Trials of spiritualism
- 1.) trial by battle
- 2.) trial by ordeal
- 3.) compurgation
“learning by association”
a process by which humans and animals learn to behave in such a way as to obtain rewards and avoid punishments.
Five Propositions of Social Learning Theory
- 1.) Delinquency is learned in the same way as conforming behavior.
- 2.) Primary learning mechanisms are differentially, reinforced, experiences/expected rewards, punishments and imitations.
- 3.) Rewards and punishments can be non-social.
- 4.) Learning occurs as a process of differential association.
- 5.) This is a complex process with reciprocal effects.
Agnew's coping mechanisms
- 1.) emotional
- 2.) behavioral
- 3.) cognitive
Cohen’s groups of delinquent boys:
- 1.) corner boy
- 2.) college boy
- 3.) delinquent boy
Cloward and Ohlin's subcultures
- 1.) criminal
- 2.) conflict
- 3.) retreatist
Merton's modes of individual adaptation:
Matza's triggers for delinquency
desperation and preparation
a process by which the person discovered that a given infraction could be pulled off by someone, that the individual had the ability to do it himself of herself and that the fear or apprehension could be managed.
relationships and reinforcements
tends to control the individual to some extent no matter how the external environment has changed.
the child develops a concept of who he or she “really is” by imagining how he or she appears to others and how others interpret and evaluate what they perceive and then by forming a sense of self based on that process.
looking glass self
social relationships that are meaningful and we don’t want to jeopardize.
stakes in conformity
social control over people.
techniques of neutralization:
- 1.) denial of responsibility
- 2.) denial of injury
- 3.) denial of the victim
- 4.) condemnation of the condemners
- 5.) appeal to higher loyalties
Gottfredson & Hirschi's key to effective parenting:
Static age of children according to Gottfredson & Hirschi
Hirschi's social bonds:
Tittle's continuum of deviance:
- left side: repression
- middle: conformity
- right side: autonomy (complete control)
Social domains in which criminals are failing according to Gottfredson & Hirschi
school, work, marriage and so on.
Tittle's control balance theory:
- balanced control- conformity
- control deficit and surplus- more likely deviant
BARJ (balanced and restorative justice)
balances community safety, accountability and competency development.
separates the child out of his group for specialized treatment plays a greater role in making the criminal than perhaps any other experience.
dramatization of evil
a practice that regularly takes large numbers of males out of inner-city communities for prolonged absences.
arises from a variety of sociocultural and psychological sources.
precipitated by the responses of others to the initial proscribed conduct.
shunning offender, which results in pushing him or her further from society.
all processes of expressing disapproval which have the intention or effect of invoking remorse in the person shamed and/or condemnation by others who became aware of it.
Basic idea of conflict theory:
- The structure of capitalism involving private ownership and vast differences in equality creates conflict and contradictions that provide the conditions of crime.
- Conflict theorists see the source of conflict in different group interests.
source of conflict is class structure of capitalisms exploitative system of economic production.
basic idea of marxist approach/radical theory
a coercive instrument of repression used by the dominant classes.
how the Marxist approach/radical theory (instrumental version) sees the law
protector and ideological vehicle of capitalist system and an ideological vehicle mystifying class exploitation in building consensus for capitalism by providing genuine rights and protections.
how the marxist approach/radical theory (structualist verison) sees the law
Quinney's crimes of dominance:
- crimes of control (police brutality)
- crimes of the government (Watergate-style offenses)
- crimes of economic domination (white-collar crime, organized crime
Quinney's crimes of accommodation and resistance:
- predatory crimes (theft)
- personal crimes (homicide) which were provoked by the conditions of capitalism
- crimes of resistance (terrorism) which involved the political struggle against the state.
what peacemaking criminology aims to build:
trust and a sense of community
They are a form of violence and should be destroyed because they reflect “a social ethos of violence and degradation”.
abolitionists' view of prisons
Postmodern view of criminals:
- “excessive investors” in the use of power to dominate others. They expropriate the ability to make a difference by denying others.
- Victims are “recovering subjects” contingent on becoming fulfilled but never completing the process damaged through having that process interrupted.
Beginning of post modern thought
after World War II
the impact of the West Coast Labeling Theory centering around Howard Becker.
Theoretical influence of new criminology
Left realism view of criminals:
- 1.) structurally powerless
- 2.) commit genuine harm
- 3.) create real fear through victimizing others, especially others who are powerless
- 4.) victims of capitalisms structural contradictions and of the state via the Criminal Justice System.
argued that lifting restrictions on women’s opportunities in the marketplace gave them the chance to be as greedy, violent, and crime prone as men.
Adler's Sister's in Crime
significant differences in the ways that women experience society compared with men.
female experiences are mapped to explore what led them to crime as well as desistence from it.
is not to push men out so as to bring women in, but rather to gender the study of crime.
goal of feminism
he described female criminality as an inherent tendency of women who, in effect, had not developed properly into feminine women with moral refinements.
Lombroso’s The Female Offender
What postmodern feminism seeks
to deconstruct the “racial, class, and gender stratification that hasresulted from modern Western civilization.”
Premises of Inside the Criminal Mind-
- Criminals think differently.
- How a person behaves is determined by how he thinks.
- Criminals are egocentric.
Three policies from the conservative agenda:
- Three strikes
- Truth and Sentencing
- Incarceration of more offenders.
what individuals thought were their chances of getting caught.
what individuals thought would happen to them after they were caught.
Concealable, Removable, Available, Valuable, Enjoyable, Disposable
Value, Inertia, Visibility, Access
the actual behavioral act of breaking the law.
states punishment serves as an example to general public
- General deterrence
- speed trap, makes you slow down.
aimed at specific perpetrators to keep them from doing it again.
Rational Choice Theory key assumption:
decisions offenders make are purposive.
defined as reducing opportunities for offense to occur.
situational crime prevention
Three components of Routine Activity Theory:
- A suitable target is available
- Absence of capable guardians
- Motivated offender
concepts of one theory overlap with another
sequence of theories linked in an additive process.
end to end integration
separate components of theories apply differently to separate groups of offenders.
side by side integration
relationships exist between theories. Sequence of variable blending.
- Problems early in life are important (such as abuse)
- Biology and environmental issues (such as neuropsychological defects)
- Changing manifestations of same problems.
Peak age of crime curve
the harshness of the punishment an individual would be given.
- normal delinquency
- difficult to explain
- maturity gap
individual (micro) and aggregate (macro) levels of abstraction. (moving from greater to less or reverse)
up and down integration
levels cause deviance, social label increase in deviance.
Wulson and Kelling: community disorganization= failure to fix broken windows.
main ideas of marxist feiinism
- Takes focus of individual female offender and places it on laws by society.
- Female crime is simply a response to the system.