Nucleic Acids & Proteins

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Nucleic Acids & Proteins
2010-12-13 02:44:47
Proteins DNA RNA

Chem 410 Ch. 17
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  1. What is an anticodon
    The triplet of bases in the center loop of tRNA that is complementary to a codon on MRNA
  2. Base
    Purine (Adenine & Guanine) and pyramidine (Cytosine, Thymine, & Uracil) compounds found in DNA and RNA.
  3. Codon
    A sequence of three bases in mRNA that specifies a certain amino acid to be placed in a protein. A few codons signal the start and stop of transcription
  4. Genetic code
    The information in DNA that is transferred to mRNA as a sequence of codons for the synthesis of protein. Series of 3 nucleotides in mRNA called codons.
  5. mRNA
    Produced in the nucleus by DNA to carry the genetic information to the ribosomes for the construction of a protein.
  6. mutation
    a change in the DNA base sequence that alters the formation of a protein in the cell.
  7. Nucleic Acids
    large molecules composed of nucleotides found as a double helix in DNA and as the single strands of RNA
  8. nucleoside
    The combination of a pentose sugar and a base/
  9. Nucleotides
    building blocks of a nucleic acid consisting of a base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. formed when C5'-OH group of ribose or DNA in a nucleoside forms a phosphate ester.
  10. Phosphodiester bond
    The phosphate link that joins the 3'-hydroxyl group in one nucleotide to the phosphate group on the 5'-carbon atom in the next nucleotide
  11. Primary Structure
    The sequence of nucleotides in nucleic acids
  12. Replication
    The process of duplicating DNA by pairing the bases on each parent strand with their complimentary base.
  13. rRNA
    The most prevalent type of RNA and a major component of ribosomes.
  14. Substitution
    A mutation that replaces one base in a DNA with a different base.
  15. Retrovirus
    a virus taht contains RNA as its genetic material and systhesizes it as a complementary DNA strand inside a cell.
  16. Genetic Disease
    A physical malfomration or metabolic dysfunction caused by a mutation in the base sequence of DNA.
  17. Transcription
    the transfer of genetic information from DNA by the formation of mRNA.
  18. Translation
    The interpretation of the codons in mRNA as amino acids in a peptide
  19. tRNA
    An RNA that places a specific Amino acid into a peptide chain at the ribosome. There is one or more tRNA for each of the 20 different amino acids.
  20. Virus
    Small particles containing DNA or RNA in a protein coat that require a host cell for replication.
  21. Unbranched polymers of repeating monomer units also known as nucleotides
    DNA and RNA - 2 closely related nucleic acids.
  22. Cytosine
    Pyramidines w/an NH2
  23. Thymine
    Is a Pyramidine w/a N3C
  24. Uracil
    Is a pyramidine for RNA w/o a H3C
  25. Adenine
    Is a Purine
  26. Guanine
    Is a Purine w/ double bonded O
  27. # of Condons possible from AGC&U
    64 codons.
  28. Stop Codons
    UGA, UAA, and UAG
  29. AUG
    if beginning then it can be the start and if in the middle then it can be methionine.
  30. Translation process
    tRNA molecules, amino acids, and enzymes convert the codons on MRNA to make a protein.