BIO FINAL

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BIO FINAL
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2010-12-13 15:12:36
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BIO FINAL
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  1. Endomysium
    Thick sleeve of loose connective (areolar) tissue that surrounds each muscle fiber (myofiber), creating room for blood capillaries and never fibers to reach every muscle fiber
  2. Perimysium
    A thicker connective tissue that wraps muscle fibers together in bundles called fascicles
  3. Epimyseum
    A fibrous sheath that surrounds the entire muscle belly. It blends into connective tissue between the muscles
  4. Series Elastic Components
    The tendons of the muscles
  5. Thick Filaments
    Each is made of several hundred myosin, molecules of protein
  6. Myosin
    Shaped like a golf club, bundled together to create thick filaments
  7. Thin Filaments
    Composed of two intertwined strands of a protein called fibrous actin, likened to a bead necklace
  8. Tropomyosin
    Also part of the thin filament. When a muscle is relaxed, it blocks the active sites and prevents myosin from binding to them
  9. Troponin
    A smaller calcium-binding protein bound to each tropomyosin. When bound, it changes shape.
  10. Regulatory Proteins
    Tropomyosin and Troponin act like a switch to determine when the fiber can contract and when it cannot.
  11. Not Regulatory Proteins
    Actin and Myosin
  12. Elastic Filaments
    Made of a huge springy protein called Titin. They flank each thick filament and anchor it to a structure called the Z Disc to stabilize the thick filament, center it between the thin filaments, and prevent overstretching
  13. ATP
    Used to extend the myosin heads in preparation of the power stroke but not used in the actual power stroke. Also used in relaxation in order for another cycle to occur.
  14. Sarcomere
    A Z-Disc at either end, about 2-2.25 nanometers is the optimum resting length
  15. Striated Muscle
    Has dark A Bands alternating with lighter I Bands
  16. A Band
    Each consists of thick filaments lying side by side. Part of the A band, where thick and thin filaments overlap, is especially dark. In this region, thin filaments surround each thick filament
  17. H Band
    A light region in the middle of the A Band. The thick filaments originate at a dark M Line in the middle of the H Band
  18. Z Disc
    A dark narrow line that bisects each light I Band providing anchorage for the thin filaments and elastic filaments
  19. Acetylcholine (ACh)
    A neurotransmitter; the electrical signal (nerve impulse) traveling down a nerve fiber causes the synaptic vesicles to undergo exocytosis, releasing ACh into the cleft. ACh thus functions as a chemical messnger from the nerve cell to the muscle cell
  20. Aponeurosis
    A broad sheet of tendon, refers to tendons associated with certain abdominal, lumbar, hand, and foot muscles.
  21. Agonists
    The muscle that produces most of the force during a particular joint action. In flexing the elbow, for example, the prime mover is the brachialis
  22. Synergist
    A muscle that aids the agonists. For example, the biceps brachii and the brachialis are synergists. A synergist may stabilize a joint and restrict these movements, or modify the direction of a movement so that the action of the prime mover is more coordinated and specific.
  23. Antagonist
    A muscle that opposes the prime mover. It maintains some tension on a joint and limits the speed or range of the agonist, preventing excessive movement, joint injury, or inappropriate actions. For example, the triceps brachii is an antagonist to the brachialis.
  24. Fixator
    a muscle that prevents a bone from moving
  25. Intrinsic Muscle
    Entirely contained within a particular region, having both its origin and insertion there
  26. Extrinsic Muscle
    Acts upon a designated region but has its origin elsewhere
  27. Abdominal Wall
    Internal/External Abdominal Oblique, Transversus Abdominus, and Rectus Abdominus
  28. Sarcolemma
    The plasma membrane of a muscular fiber, carries electrical action potential.
  29. The Triad
    Constituted of a T Tubule and two Terminal Cicternae
  30. The Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
    A reservoir of calcium ions; it has gated channels in its membrane that open at the right times to release a flood of Ca^2+ into the cytosol, where the calcium activates the muscle contraction process. The T Tubule signals the SR when to release these calcium bursts
  31. Homeostasis
    The body's ability to detect change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions
  32. Claude Bernard
    French physiologist who observed that the internal conditions of the body remain constant even when external conditions vary
  33. Walter Cannon
    Coined the term homeostasis for the tendency to maintain internal stability
  34. Inductive Method
    A process of making numerous observations until one feels confident about drawing generalizations and predictions from them. Used in anatomy, Descriptive.
  35. Hypothetico-Deductive Method
    Begins by asking a question and forming a hypothesis - an educated speculation or possible answer to the question, which must be falsifiable. Used in physiology. Experimental.
  36. Francis Bacon
    Inductive Method
  37. Rene Descartes
    Hypothetico-Deductive Method
  38. Theory
    An explanatory statement or set of statements derived from facts, laws, and confirmed hypothesis.
  39. Fact
    Information that can be independently verified by any trained person
  40. Law
    A generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave. It is the result of inductive reasoning based on repeated, confirmed observations.
  41. Levels Which Organisms are Categorized
    Organism, Organ Systems, Organs, Tissues, Cells, Organelles, Molecules, Atoms
  42. Plasma Membrane
    Defines the boundaries of the cell, governs its interactions with other cells, and controls the passage of materials into and out of the cell
  43. Microvilli
    Extensions of the plasma membrane that serve primarily to increase a cell's surface area
  44. Cilia
    Hairlike processes that beat in waves called a power stroke that pushes along matter
  45. Flagellum
    The whiplike tail of sperm
  46. Neucleoplasm
    The material in the nucleus
  47. Chromatin
    Fine thread of dark matter composed of DNA and protein
  48. Nucleoli
    Dark-staining mass
  49. Ribosomes
    Small granules of protein and RNA found in the nucleoli, in the cytosol, and on the outer surfaces of the rough ER and nuclear envelope. They "read" coded messages (mRNA) and assmble amino acids into proteins specified by the code.
  50. Golgi Complex
    A small system of cisternae that synthesize carbohydrates and put the finishing touches on protein and glycoprotein synthesis
  51. Lysosome
    A package of enzymes bounded by a single until membrane that digest and dispose of worn out mitochondria and other organelles in a process called autophagy.
  52. Autolysis
    The digestion and shrinkage of surplus cells by their own lysosomal enzymes; programmed death
  53. Perioxisomes
    Neutralize free radicals and detoxify alcohol, other drugs, and a variety of blood-borne toxins. Peroxisomes also decompose fatty acids into two-carbon acetyl groups, which the mitochondria then use as an energy source for the ATP synthesis.
  54. Mitochondria
    Organelles specialized for synthesizing ATP. The inner membrane has folds called cristae. The space between the cristae, the matrix, contains ribosomes used in ATP synthesis; and a small circular DNA molecule called mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)
  55. Cytoskeleton
    A collection of protein filaments and cylinders that determine the shape of a cell, lend it structural support, organize its contents, direct the movement of substances through the cell , and contribute to movements of the cell as a whole.
  56. Microfilaments
    Made of the protein actin
  57. Intermediate Filaments
    Thicker and stiffer than microfilaments. They resist stresses placed on a cell and participate in junctions that attach some cells to their neighbors. In epidermal cells, they are made of keratin and occupy most of the cytoplasm
  58. Microtubules
    A cylinder made of protofilaments that radiate from the centrosome and hold organelles in place, form bundles that maintain cell shape and rigidity.
  59. Endocytosis
    A vesicular process that brings matter into a cell
  60. Exocytosis
    Releases material from a cell
  61. Phagocytosis
    Cell Eating
  62. Pinocytosis
    Cell drinking
  63. Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
    a selective form of phagocytosis or pinocytosis
  64. Transcription
    The process of copying genetic instructions from DNA to RNA
  65. Translation
    Converts the language of nucleotides into the language of amino acids, which occur mainly in the cytosol and on the outside of the rough ER and nuclear envelope
  66. Base Pairs of DNA
    • A-T
    • G-C
  67. Base Pairs of RNA
    • A-U
    • G-C
  68. Transmembrane Proeins
    Proteins that pass through the membrane; usually glycoproteins
  69. Peripheral Proteins
    Do not protrude into the phospholipid layer but adhere to one face of the membrane. It is typically associated with a transmembrane protein and tethered to the cytoskeleton.
  70. Receptors
    Many of the chemical signals by which cells communicate cannot enter the target cell but bind to surface proteins called receptors, usually specific for one particular messenger
  71. Epithelial Tissue
    Composed of layers of closely spaced cells that cover organ surfaces, form glands, and serve for protections, secretion, and absorption
  72. Connective Tissue
    Tissue with more matrix than cell volume, often specialized to support, bind together, and protect organs
  73. Nervous Tissue
    Containing excitable cells specialized for rapid transmission of coded information to other cells
  74. Muscular
    Tissue composed of elongated, excitable cells specialized for contraction
  75. Collagen Protein
    The most abundant protein in the body, forming the fibers of many connective tissues in places such as the dermis, tendons, and bones
  76. Keratin
    A tough structural protein, gives strength to the nails, hair, and skin surface
  77. Osteoblasts
    Bone-forming cell that arises from an osteogenic cell, deposits bone matrix, and eventually becomes an osteocyte. They synthesize the soft organic matter of the bone matrix, which then hardens by mineral deposition
  78. Osteocyte
    A mature bone cell formed when an osteoblast becomes surrounded by its own matrix and entrapped in lacunae, which are interconnected by slender channels called canaliculi
  79. Osteoclast
    Macrophage of the bone surface that dissolves the matrix and returns minerals to the extracellular fluid
  80. Chondroblast
    Secrete the matrix and surround themselves with it until they become trapped in little cavities called lacunae.
  81. Chondrocyte
    Cells enclosed in lacunae. A cartilage cell, a former chondroblast that has become enclosed in a lacuna in the cartilage matrix
  82. Interstitial Growth
    Cartilage growth from within, by multiplication of chondrocytes and deposition of new matrix in the interior
  83. Appositional Growth
    The deposition of new tissue at the surface
  84. Stratum Basale
    Touch receptors form the Merkel Disc
  85. Stratum Spinosum
    Protect body against pathogens
  86. Stratum Granulosum
    Produces lipid-filled vesicles that release glycolipids by exocytosis to waterproof the skin
  87. Stratum Lucidum
    Only in thick skin, does not stain well, no nucleus or organelles
  88. Stratum Corneum
    Up to 30 layers of dead, scaly, keratlinized cells
  89. Long Bones
    Levers acted upon by muscles
  90. Short Bones
    Glide across one another in multiple directions
  91. Flat Bones
    Protect soft organs
  92. Diaphysis
    • Cylinder of compact bone
    • Marrow cavity (medullary cavity) lined with endosteum (osteogenic cells and reticular connective tissue)
  93. Epiphysis
    Enlarged ends of bones to strengthen joint and attach ligaments
  94. Periosteum
    Shaft covered in it, outer fibrous layer of collagen and inner osteogenic layer of bone forming cells
  95. Epiphyseal Plate
    Growth plate
  96. Diarthrosis
    Freely Moveable
  97. Amphiarthrosis
    Slightly moveable
  98. Synarthrosis
    Little or no movement
  99. Synostosis
    Bony Joint
  100. Fibrous Joint
    Synarthrosis
  101. Sutures
    Immovable fibrous joints
  102. Serrate
    Interlocking lines
  103. Lap
    Overlapping beveled edges
  104. Plane
    Straight, non-overlapping edges
  105. Gomphosis
    Some movement while chewing; attachment of tooth to its socket
  106. Syndesmosis
    Most movable of fibrous joint; two bones bound by ligament; radius-ulna and tibia-fibula
  107. Synchondrosis
    Bone joined by hyaline cartilage; rib-sernum
  108. Symphysis
    Bones joined by fibrocartilage; pubic symphysis-intervertebral discs
  109. Synovial Joints
    Bones separated by a joint cavity; freely movable
  110. Fibrous Joints
    Sutures, Gomphosis, or Syndesmosis
  111. Cartilaginous Joint
    Synchondrosis or symphysis
  112. Intramembranous Ossification
    Flat bones, not made from cartilage
  113. Endochondral Ossification
    Long bones, made from cartilage

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