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3 parts of the nervous system
- 1. spinal cord
- 2. brain
- 3. peripheral nervous system (nerves)
- portion in the back of the head, split left & right, sits between the brain and brain stem
- role: controls BALANCE and COORDINATION (loss of cerebellum fxn when intoxicated)
- largest portion of the brain, consists of frontal, occipital, temporal and parietal lobes
- role: speech, hearing, reasoning and thinking
If left side of brain suffers an injury, which side of the body would be affected?
the RIGHT side (opposite)
Brain stem characteristics/role
- made up of: medulla, pons and close to it is the reticular formation
- role: controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure (BP)
Which cranial nerve controls the movement of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid?
Accessory Nerve (CN#11)
pnemonic of cranial nerves in order w/#s
- Oh, Oh, Oh, To Taste And Feel Very Green Vegetables AH!
- CN1 - olfactory nerve
- 2 - optic
- 3 - oculomotor
- 4 - trochlear
- 5 - trigeminal
- 6 - abducens
- 7 - facial
- 8 - vestibulocochlear
- 9 - glossopharyngeal
- 10 - vagus
- 11 - accessory
- 12 - hypoglossal
Which cranial nerve branches out to become 3 and name the 3
- CN#5 - trigeminal
- branches to become Optic, Maxillary and Mandibular
Nervous System Types and subsets (fight or flight, rest & digest)
- Somatic - voluntary
- autonomic - involuntary
- within autonomic is: sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest & digest)
which is essential, sympathetic or parasympathetic
Parasympathetic, as you can be stimulated and heart rate increased by other things besides sympathetic, but need parasympathetic to relax once stimulated.
Which part of the nervous system carries impulses
The Peripheral nervous System
Which part of the nervous system Regulates impulses
the Central Nervous System
How many pairs of spinal nerves?
How many pairs of cervical nerves?
How many pairs of cranial nerves?
what are plexuses
networks of axons
is formed by the anterior rami of C1-C5
What comes out of the cervical plexus?
makes up anterior rami of C5-C8 and T1
What does the brachial plexus supply
the shoulders, upper limb
What does the cervical plexus supply
the neck and head
Some important nerves that arise from brachial plexus
- auxillary nerve
- musculocutaneous nerve
- radial nerve
- median nerve
- ulnar nerve
3 injuries to brachial nerves
- 1. wrist drop (waiter's tip), cannot extend the wrist or fingers. Radial nerve damage causes loss of sensation of lateral side of arm
- 2. ape hand, cannot move the thumb outside the plane of the hand. Damage to median nerve
- 3. claw hand, cannot flex the pointer and middle finger. Damage to ulnar nerve.
formed by anterior rami of L1-L4
Important nerves that arise from lumbar plexus
- femoral nerves
- obturator nerves
- sciatic nerve
Characteristics of sciatic nerve
- biggest nerve in the body
- splits into the tibial and fibular nerve
- comes out of the sciatic notch
What does the lumbar plexus supply
external genitalia, part of the lower limb
formed by anterior rami of L4-L5 & S1-S4
What does the sacral plexus supply?
buttocks, perineum, lower limbs, legs and feet
Reflex Arc pathway (in order)
- 1. sensory receptor: responds to a stimulus
- 2. sensory neuron: axons conduct impulses from receptor to integrating center
- 3. integrating center: within the CNS, relay impulses from sensory to motor neurons (Interneurons involved here)
- 4. Motor neuron: axon conducts impulses from integrating center to effector
- 5. Effector: muscle or gland that responds to motor nerve impulses
Connective Tissue coverings of spinal nerves
- 1. epineurium: around the entire nerve
- 2. perineurium: around each fascicle
- 3. endoneurium: around each axon
- bundle of axons in the brain, located in the midbrain, below the corpus callosum
- responsible for limbic system
consists of thalamus, hypothelamus and penial glands
Which cranial nerves sit in the midbrain?
CN#3 (oculomotor) and CN#4 (trochlear)
What is the role of the red nucleus in the midbrain?
It helps control voluntary limb movements