final review questions & ch 13.txt

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final review questions & ch 13.txt
2010-12-13 13:39:38

chapter 13 and review
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  1. 3 parts of the nervous system
    • 1. spinal cord
    • 2. brain
    • 3. peripheral nervous system (nerves)
  2. cerebellum characteristics/role
    • portion in the back of the head, split left & right, sits between the brain and brain stem
    • role: controls BALANCE and COORDINATION (loss of cerebellum fxn when intoxicated)
  3. cerebrum characteristics/role
    • largest portion of the brain, consists of frontal, occipital, temporal and parietal lobes
    • role: speech, hearing, reasoning and thinking
  4. If left side of brain suffers an injury, which side of the body would be affected?
    the RIGHT side (opposite)
  5. Brain stem characteristics/role
    • made up of: medulla, pons and close to it is the reticular formation
    • role: controls breathing, heart rate and blood pressure (BP)
  6. Which cranial nerve controls the movement of the trapezius and sternocleidomastoid?
    Accessory Nerve (CN#11)
  7. pnemonic of cranial nerves in order w/#s
    • Oh, Oh, Oh, To Taste And Feel Very Green Vegetables AH!
    • CN1 - olfactory nerve
    • 2 - optic
    • 3 - oculomotor
    • 4 - trochlear
    • 5 - trigeminal
    • 6 - abducens
    • 7 - facial
    • 8 - vestibulocochlear
    • 9 - glossopharyngeal
    • 10 - vagus
    • 11 - accessory
    • 12 - hypoglossal
  8. Which cranial nerve branches out to become 3 and name the 3
    • CN#5 - trigeminal
    • branches to become Optic, Maxillary and Mandibular
  9. Nervous System Types and subsets (fight or flight, rest & digest)
    • Somatic - voluntary
    • autonomic - involuntary
    • within autonomic is: sympathetic (fight or flight) and parasympathetic (rest & digest)
  10. which is essential, sympathetic or parasympathetic
    Parasympathetic, as you can be stimulated and heart rate increased by other things besides sympathetic, but need parasympathetic to relax once stimulated.
  11. Which part of the nervous system carries impulses
    The Peripheral nervous System
  12. Which part of the nervous system Regulates impulses
    the Central Nervous System
  13. How many pairs of spinal nerves?
  14. How many pairs of cervical nerves?
  15. How many pairs of cranial nerves?
  16. what are plexuses
    networks of axons
  17. cervical plexus
    is formed by the anterior rami of C1-C5
  18. What comes out of the cervical plexus?
    Phrenic nerves
  19. Brachial plexus
    makes up anterior rami of C5-C8 and T1
  20. What does the brachial plexus supply
    the shoulders, upper limb
  21. What does the cervical plexus supply
    the neck and head
  22. Some important nerves that arise from brachial plexus
    • auxillary nerve
    • musculocutaneous nerve
    • radial nerve
    • median nerve
    • ulnar nerve
  23. 3 injuries to brachial nerves
    • 1. wrist drop (waiter's tip), cannot extend the wrist or fingers. Radial nerve damage causes loss of sensation of lateral side of arm
    • 2. ape hand, cannot move the thumb outside the plane of the hand. Damage to median nerve
    • 3. claw hand, cannot flex the pointer and middle finger. Damage to ulnar nerve.
  24. Lumbar plexus
    formed by anterior rami of L1-L4
  25. Important nerves that arise from lumbar plexus
    • femoral nerves
    • obturator nerves
    • sciatic nerve
  26. Characteristics of sciatic nerve
    • biggest nerve in the body
    • splits into the tibial and fibular nerve
    • comes out of the sciatic notch
  27. What does the lumbar plexus supply
    external genitalia, part of the lower limb
  28. sacral plexus
    formed by anterior rami of L4-L5 & S1-S4
  29. What does the sacral plexus supply?
    buttocks, perineum, lower limbs, legs and feet
  30. Reflex Arc pathway (in order)
    • Includes
    • 1. sensory receptor: responds to a stimulus
    • 2. sensory neuron: axons conduct impulses from receptor to integrating center
    • 3. integrating center: within the CNS, relay impulses from sensory to motor neurons (Interneurons involved here)
    • 4. Motor neuron: axon conducts impulses from integrating center to effector
    • 5. Effector: muscle or gland that responds to motor nerve impulses
  31. Connective Tissue coverings of spinal nerves
    • 1. epineurium: around the entire nerve
    • 2. perineurium: around each fascicle
    • 3. endoneurium: around each axon
  32. fornix
    • bundle of axons in the brain, located in the midbrain, below the corpus callosum
    • responsible for limbic system
  33. diancephelon
    consists of thalamus, hypothelamus and penial glands
  34. Which cranial nerves sit in the midbrain?
    CN#3 (oculomotor) and CN#4 (trochlear)
  35. What is the role of the red nucleus in the midbrain?
    It helps control voluntary limb movements