Anatomy Final

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Anatomy Final
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2010-12-13 14:39:07
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Anatomy Final
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  1. Which systems control fluid balance?
    Endocrine via hormones & Urinary
  2. Total body water is made up of what 2 fluids?
    Intracellular 40%, Extracellular 20%, others are plasma and ISF
  3. Intarcellular fluid is found primarily _________.
    Inside cells
  4. What are the major electrolytes found in intracellular fluid?
    Cations and Anions
  5. Extracellular fluid is made up of what 3 components?
    Plasma, ISF and Lymph
  6. List the major electrolytes in Plasma
    Sodium and Chloride
  7. List the major electrolytes in ISF
    Sodium and Chloride
  8. What is the composition of Lymph?
    WBC's, and similar to plasma
  9. Thirst is stimulated by the increased________of plasma, _______ BP and the renin-angiotensin system.
    osmolality, low.
  10. An increase of ____ (hormone) increases water reabsorption and ______ plasma concentration.
    ADH, decreases
  11. The renin-angiotensin system responds to _____ changes in BV.
    small
  12. Increase BP in the Afferent arteriole will ____ renin release, which will ____ angiotensin I and II. A decrease in angiotensin II will ____ aldosterone release fron the adrenal cortex which _____ BP.
    Decrease, Decrease, Decrease, Decrease
  13. What is the function of Atrial Natruretic Hormone?
    Causes kidneys to excrete salt. Water follows= Decrease BV
  14. What is the stimulus for the release of ANH?
    Increased BV, stretch of Atria due to high BV.
  15. What is the major extracellular ion of intracellular fluid?
    NA+
  16. What is the function of Sodium ion in fluid balance?
    What is the hormonal control of Sodium ion?
    Is this ion primarily intracellular or extracellular?
    • Osmotic reg. & water balance.
    • Aldosterone and ANH
    • Extracellular
  17. What is the function of Chloride Ion in fluid balance?
    What is the hormonal control of Chloride ion?
    Is this ion primarily intracellular or extracellular?
    • Maintain H2O balance and resting potential
    • Aldosterone
    • Extracellular
  18. What is the function of Potassium ion in fluid balance?
    What is the hormonal control of Potassium ion?
    Is this ion primarily intracellular or extracellular?
    • Affects resting membrane potentials& action potentials.
    • Aldosterone
    • Intracellular (diffuses extracellular)
  19. What is the function of Calcium ion?
    What is the hormonal control of Calcium Ion?
    Is this ion primarily intra or extracellular?
    • Bone, blood, muscle, nervous syst.
    • Parathyroid hormone
    • Extracellular
  20. What is the function of Magnesium ion?
    What is the control of Magnesium ion?
    Is this ion primarily intra or extracellular?
    • Cofactor in enzymes that release energy, Nerve function, and necessary for ATP activity.
    • Kidney excrete excess, Diet provided.
    • Intracellular
  21. What is the function of Phosphate ion? 
    What is the control of Phosphate ion?
    Is this ion primarily intra or extracellular?
    • Part of ATP, buffer.
    • Kidneys excrete excess, plentiful in diet.
    • Intarcellular
  22. List 4 causes of electrolyte imbalances and ions that may be lost.
    • Sweat: Na+ & Cl-
    • Vomit: H+ & Cl-
    • Diarrhea: Na+, bicarb HCO3-
    • Diuretic drugs: K+, some ions
  23. What is the normal range for blood pH?
    7.35-7.45
  24. List 2 possible causes of acidosis.
    Pneumonia, emphysema, vomiting
  25. List 1 possible cause of alkalosis.
    • Respiratory Alkalosis-Hyperventilation
    • Metabolic Alkalosis-Ingestion of Alkaline substances
  26. List 4 buffer systems
    • Carbonic acid/Bicarb. buffer-Extracellular blood
    • Phosphate buffer-Intracellular kidney tubules
    • Protein buffers
    • Hemoglobin buffers
  27. Which buffer system is the most rapid?
    Carboni acid/Bicarb
  28. Inadequate ventilation may cause respiratory ______ which is a pH level less than ____.
    Acidosis, 7.35
  29. Acid-base balance may be affected by respiratory stresses such as high altitude. Explain.
    The need for O2 is produced by hyperventilation, which can cause respiratory alkalosis.
  30. The kidneys are ____ acting. If Urine contains too much Hydrogen ion, blood will become ____ acidic.
    slow, less.
  31. What is the difference between metabolic acidosis and alkalosis?
    • Acidosis- pH <7.35~Decreased NS activity-Coma
    • Alkalosis-pH >7.45~Convulsions
  32. The testes have both an endocrine and exocrine function. Explain.
    Gland which produce male gametes as well as produce testosterone & other hormones.
  33. What is the function of the seminiferous tubules?
    Sperm production
  34. What is the function of the Sertoli cells? What hormone is secreted?
    Provides nutrients for developing sperm. Inhibin.
  35. What is the function of the Leydig cells? What hormone is secreted?
    Produce testosterone. Function is to produce testosterone.
  36. What hormone is required for testes descent?
    Testosterone
  37. What is the function of the scrotum? Explain how fertility is related to the scrotum?
    Thermoregulation. Fertility requires 95-96 degrees F.
  38. What is the function of the epididymis?
    Sperm storage and maturation.
  39. What is the function of the seminal vesicles?
    Provide nutrients for sperm during ejaculation.
  40. What is the function of the prostate gland?
    Sperm dilution, transport, reduction of vaginal acidity, and sperm movement due to thin alkaline fluid secreted here.
  41. What is the dual function of the penis?
    Erection (Parasympathetic) and Emission/Ejaculation (Sympathetic)
  42. List the factors that may be tested to determine male fertility.
    • Quantity-<20,000,000=infertile
    • Quality-movement and shape
  43. During spermatogenesis, 1 Diploid spermatogonium produces ________________.
    4 Haploid Sperm cells
  44. Semen is a mixture of secretions. List them and the glands that produce them.
    • Testes-Inhibin
    • Seminal Vesicles-Fructose rich alkaline fluid
    • Prostate-Thin alkaline fluid
    • Bulbeorethral glands-Thick, alkaline fluid
  45. Explain the hormonal control of testosterone.
    Hypothalamus-->GnRH-->Ant. Pituitary-->Leutenizing hormone-->Leydig cells--> Testosterone.

    Negative feedback
  46. What is the function of Inhibin? Where is it produced?
    Controls rate of spermatogenisis. Sertoli cells.
  47. Explain the hormonal control of Inhibin.
    • Hypothalamus-->GnRH-->Pituitary-->FSH-->sertoli cells-->Inhibin
    • or
    • Hypothalamus-->GnRH-->Pituitary-->FSH-->Seminiferous tubules-->Spermatogenesis
  48. What is the function of the ovary?
    E&P production, Ovum production.
  49. What is Uterine prolapse?
    Uterus drops into vagina due to weakened pelvic floor muscles.
  50. What is the typical site of conception in the female?
    Uterine tubes
  51. What structural feature allows the vagina ti increase in size?
    Outer smooth muscle
  52. List the phases of the menstrual cycle
    • Menses
    • Preovulatory
    • Ovulation
    • Postovulatory
  53. Explain what happens during the preovulatory phase
    Approx. 20 follicles and oocytes develop. Follicles release E which inhibit less mature follicles. About 5 become secondary follicles, and 1 usually matures, releasing more E.
  54. Explain what happens during the postovulatory phase.
    Follicular cells-->Corpus Luteum, releasing E&P. If no fertilization occurs, in 12-16 days Corpus Luteum becomes Corpus Albicans. The resulting decrease in E&P causes Menses. If fertilization occurs, Corpus Luteum persists and E&P increase, supporting pregnancy.
  55. List 4 functions of Estrogen
    • Maintains female reproductive organs
    • Initiates female secondary sex characterisitics
    • Fusion of epiphyseal plates (growth spurt)
    • Initiates, but does not complete breast development
  56. List 4 functions of Progesterone
    • Maintains Endometrium
    • Completes breast development during 1st pregnancy
    • Elevates basal body temp
    • During pregnancy, P increases, maintains endometrium and decreases uterine contractions
  57. What is the hormonal cause of menses?
    E&P are low
  58. The hormone_____ initiates the development of primary follicles.
    GnRH
  59. Follicle cells release the hormone_____.
    E
  60. High Estrogen levels have a ______ feedback effect on LH and FSH release.
    Positive
  61. The ______ initiates ovulation.
    Ovary
  62. There is a ______ feedback on GnRH, which ________ LH and FSH.
    Negative, stimulates
  63. If a pregnancy occurs, embryonic tissues produce the hormone ____, which is the basis for pregnancy tests. The corpus luteum _____ E&P production, causing the endometrium to _______.
    HCG, increase, thicken.
  64. If there is no pregnancy, corpus luteum degenerates causing E&P to ______, which signals ______ to occur.
    Drops, menses
  65. During the preovulatory phase, the hormone_____ is increasing to __________ cervical mucus.
    E, increase
  66. The hormonal control during the postovulatory phase is______.
    P
  67. If pregnancy occurs, what homones are affected?
    E&P, and HCG
  68. Define Puberty. List the hormones involved in the female.
    Onset of reproductive maturity. Hypothalamus loses it's sensitivity to E-->GnRH increases-->FSH increases-->LH increases-->Estrogen increases.
  69. Define Menarche
    First Menses
  70. Define Menopause. What is happening to the hormones?
    Natural cessation of femal reproductive ability; last menstruation. Ovaries fail to respond to LH and FSH, E&P decreases.
  71. List the steps of Oogenesis and the result of each step.
    • 1. Diploid Oogonium begins first meiotic division=Doubling occurs
    • 2. First meiotic division complete=2nd Oocyte and polar body
    • 3. Second meiotic division completed=1 Haploid Oocyte
  72. Explain the diff. between fraternal and Identical.
    • Fraternal: Woman ovulated 2 eggs
    • Identical: Fertilized egg splits, "natural clone"
  73. Explain the diff. between the Moula and Blastocyst
    • Morula: "berry", solid ball of cells-->3rd day
    • Blastocyst: 3-7 days then implantation-->hollow ball stage
  74. What are the structures of the blastocyst? What do these structures become?
    • Trophoblast-becomes placenta
    • Inner cell mass-becomes Embryo
  75. Implantation is the burrowing of the ___________ into the _____________. This occurs in the ________ of the uterus at ___ days after fertilization.
    blastocyst, uterine wall, fundus, 7.
  76. List the germ layers and the adult tissues that can be traced to these layers.
    • Ectoderm-Epidermis, brain, spinal cord
    • Mesoderm-Dermis, bone, muscle, cardiovasc. system
    • Endoderm-Lungs and digestive organs
  77. Organogenesis occurs between weeks __ to __.
    2 to 8
  78. Why is the structure of the placenta so important? What embryonic structure does the placenta develop from?
    Maternal and fetal blood vessel arrangement allows for exchange (not mixing) of nutrients, wastes, etc. Develops from trophoblast.
  79. The fetal period is from __ to __ weeks. The hormonal support comes from the ________.
    8 to 38, placenta (E&P).
  80. List the stages of labor.
    • 1. Dilation &effacement of cervix.
    • 2. Birth of child
    • 3. Expulsion of placenta
  81. Explain the hormonal changes that contribute to the initiation of labor.
    Fetus releases stress hormones (cortisol), Placenta decreases Progesterone and increases Estrogen and Prostoglandins.
  82. Lactation involves the hormones _____ and _______ from the placenta and ________ from the anterior pituitary.
    Progesterone and Estrogen, Prolactin
  83. After birth, progesterone and estrogen levels_____. Why?
    Drop. Loss of placenta.
  84. After birth, prolactin and oxytocin levels _____. Why?
    Suckling stimulates hormones.
  85. List the components of breast milk.
    • Water
    • Lactose
    • Protein
    • Fat
    • Vitamins, Minerals
    • Antibodies

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