Chemistry

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Author:
sherin6
ID:
55627
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Chemistry
Updated:
2010-12-13 15:17:48
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Exams
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key points for Chem exam
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  1. speed of light
    • 3.00 x 10^8m/s
    • c
  2. Group 1 on Periodic Tables
    • Alkali metals
    • chemically reactive (more reactive than group 2)
  3. Group 2 on Periodic Table
    • Alkali Earth metals
    • chemically reactive
  4. Group 17 on Periodic Table
    • halogen
    • highly reactive
  5. Group 18 on Periodic Table
    • noble gases
    • extremely non reactive
  6. Inner Transition Metals
    2 sets: Lanthanide and Actinide
  7. Atomic Radius across a period
    Decreases: because increasing number of protons = increase charge = stronger pull of e- cloud = smaller atomic radius
  8. Atomic Radius down a group
    increases: more e- shells are added making radius bigger
  9. Radius of Atom vs Ion
    • neutral atom is smaller than positive ion: because has more electron shells
    • negative ion is bigger than neutral ion: because more electrons in outer shell = increase repulsion between e- = creating larger radius
  10. Ionization Energy
    • energy required to remove and electron from a gaseous atom
    • kJ/mol
    • High IE = strong hold on e- (less likely to form pos. ions)
    • Low IE = weak hold on e- (more likely to form pos. ions)
  11. Ionization across a period
    increased IE: nuclear charge increases and has more pull on valence electrons
  12. Ionization down group
    Decreased IE: greater distance between valence electrons and nucleus, so less energy required since pull isnt as strong
  13. Octet Rule
    atoms tend to gain, lose, or share e- to acquire full set of 8 valence electrons
  14. Electronegativity
    indicates relative ability of atoms to attract electron in chemical bond

    *greater EN = more attraction of electrons in bond

    increases as move across period and decreases as moves down group
  15. waves
    • energy increases with increasing frequency
    • wavelength and frequency are related; as one increases the other decreases
    • purple = highest energy (high frequency)
    • red = lowest energy (low frequency)
  16. lattice energy
    • energy needed to break 1 mole of an ionic compound into its gaseous ions
    • measured in kJ/mol
    • breaking down ions requires energy
    • forming compounds releases energy
    • High LE = strong attraction between positive and negative ions
    • Low LE = weak attraction
  17. memorize ions
    • sulfate: SO42-
    • Carbonate: CO32-
    • Nitrate: NO3-
    • Hydroxide: OH-
    • Ammonium: NH4-
    • Copper: Cu 1+ - Cu2+
    • Iron: Fe2+ - Fe3+
    • Lead: Pb2+ - Pb4+
    • Silver: Ag1+
    • Zinc: Zn2+
  18. lattice energy down a group
    LE decreases: because gets easier to break down structure because attraction of nucleus to electron is very low
  19. factors that impact Lattice Energy
    • ionic radii: big ions have less attractive force between ions than small ions
    • Magnitude of ionic change: the higher the charge of the ions, the greater the attraction, and the higher the LE energy
  20. metallic bond
    • metal + metal
    • rep. particle = atoms
  21. ionic bond
    • ion + ion
    • rep. particle = formula units
  22. covalent bond
    • matal + nonmetal
    • rep. particle = molecules
  23. Molar mass
    atomic mass expressed in grams / 1 mole
  24. mass abundance
    (mass) x (% abundance) = ____amu
  25. conversions
    • 1L = 1000 mL = 1000cm3
    • 1mL = 1cm3
    • 1mi = 5280ft
  26. percent composition
    (mass of element) / (total compound mass) x 100 = _____ % (E)
  27. atom formulas
    atomic number = number of protons = number of electrons
  28. neutron formula
    number of neutrons = mass number - atomic number
  29. percentage error
    (true value - experimental value) / true value x 100 = the error (low # = good & high # = bad)
  30. the triangle
    • mass = density x volume
    • density = mass / volume
    • volume = mass / density
  31. density of water
    1.0g / ml

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