Chapter 23 lymph
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Chapter 23 lymph
Anatomy lymphatic system
What are the two types of immune responses?
Direct attack by activated T cells, & cell-mediated immunity.
Name the non-specific resistance of the lymphatic system.
Mechanical, chemical, & cellular.
What are the functions of the lymph system?
Lymphocyte production, maintenance & distribution, maintain normal blood volume & composition of interstitial fluid & transport of lipids & lipid-soluble vitamins.
What are the primary lymphiod structures?
Bone marrow & thymus.
What are the secondary lymphoid structures?
Lymph nodes & tonsils.
Which direction does lymph flow?
Only towards the heart.
What are three characteristics of lymph vessels?
Endothelial cells overlap, fenestrated/pores & gaps between endothelial cells allow solutes, debris, viruses, & bacteria to enter, present in almost every tissue & organ of the body.
What structure of the lymphatic system prevents backflow of lymph?
Valves, & skeletal pump
Beginning with the capillaries, where does lymph flow?
Capillaries, lymphatic vessels (with valves), lymphatic trunks, & lymphactic ducts (2).
Where does the thoracic duct collect lymph from?
From both sides of the body inferior to the diaphragm.
What is the base of the thoracic duct called?
Where does the thoracic duct end?
Empties into the left subclavian vein.
Where does the right lymphatic duct collect lymph from?
The right side of the body, superior to the diaphragm.
Where does the right lymphatic duct end?
Empties into right subclavian vein.
What are lymphocytes responsible for?
Specific immune response.
What are lymphocytes dervied from?
Stem cells (hemocytoblasts)
Describe three characteristics of lymphocytes.
They have a long life span, millions of different lymphocyte populations, retain ability to divide, & immunocompetent.
Name the three classes of lymphocytes.
T cells, B cells, & NK cells.
'T' cells make up what % of circulating lymphocytes?
Where do 'T' cells get their name from?
What is the function of cytotoxic 'T' cells?
They do hand to hand combat with virus-infected cells, foreign cells.
What do helper & suppressor cells assist in?
Regulations & coordination of immune response. Activation & activity of cytotoxic T & B cells.
How are memory cells produced?
By the division of activated 'T' cells following exposure to a particular antigen.
Where are 'B' cells derived?
From bone marrow.
What is the % of circulating lymphocytes that 'B' cells account for?
Where do 'B' cells reside?
In lymph nodes, spleen & lymphatic tissue.
What do 'B' cells differentiate into?
What are plasmocytes responsible for?
The production & secretion of antibodies.
What type of immunity are 'B' cells involved in?
What type of immunity are 'T' cells involved in?
What % of circulating lymphocytes do NK cells account for?
Where do NK cells mature?
In bone marrow.
What do NK cells attack?
Foreign cells, cells infected with viruses, & abnormal cancer cells.
What is immunocompetence?
The ability of a lymphocyte to recognize a specific antigen.
What attaches to the lymph node at the hilum?
Blood vessels & nerves.
Name the two sets of lymphatic vessels that each lymph node has.
Afferent & efferent lymphatics.
Name the 5 tonsils.
1 pharyngeal tonsil, 2 palatine tonsils, & 2 lingual tonsils.
Name the lymphoid tissues of the digestive system.
Peyers patches, & MALT.
Where are Peyers patches located?
In the small intestines.
Where is MALT located?
When lymph first arrives at the node, where does it enter?
What does the subscapsular space contain?
A meshwork of branching reticular fibers, macrophages, & dendritic cells.
What do the dendritic cells collect?
Antigens from the lymph & present them in their cell membranes.
Where does the lymph flow after passing through the subscapsular space?
Flows through the outer cortex of the node.
Where does lymph continue to flow after reaching the outer cortex of the node?
Lymph sinuses in the deep cortex.
After flowing through the sinuses of the deep cortex, where does lymph flow?
To the medulla of the node.
What type of cells dominate the cortical area of the node?
What does the medulla of the node contain?
'B' cells & plasmocytes, elongated masses known as a medullary cords.
What is the function of the thymus?
Maturation of 'T' cells, & 'T' cells sensitive to normal tissue are destroyed.
What is the blood-thymus barrier?
'T' cells in thymus are inactive & not exposed to antigens.
What is the largest lymphatic organ?
What is the function of the spleen?
Blood cleansing, storage of iron & blood platelets, & lymphocyte proliferation & immune survellience & response.
What is the red pulp?
Rbc's+ free & fixed macrophages & lymphocytes.
What is the white pulp?
Lymphatic nodule with macrophages.