Chemistry

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Author:
shaketarenae
ID:
55635
Filename:
Chemistry
Updated:
2010-12-13 15:33:45
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NPN Compounds
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Description:
NPN Compounds and Plasma Protein Worksheet
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  1. What are NPN compounds?
    • 1. urea
    • 2. creatinine
    • 3. uric acid
    • 4. ammonia
    • 5. creatine
    • 6. amino acids
  2. Do NPN compounds contain nitrogen?
    Yes
  3. Are NPN compounds proteins?
    No
  4. Which NPN compounds are waste?
    • 1. creatinine
    • 2. urea
    • 3. uric acid
    • 4. ammonia
  5. Which NPN compounds are building blocks?
    Creatine and Amino acids
  6. What is urea the breakdown product of?
    Protein
  7. Where is urea formed and from what?
    • Urea is formed in the liver from Ammonia.
    • When the liver breaks down proteins or amino acids and ammonia the kidneys transfers the urea from the blood to urine
  8. What does BUN stand for?
    Blood Urea Nitrogen
  9. What 2 things affect serum BUN?
    • 1. amount of protein in urine
    • 2. urine volume
    • 3. Protein in your diet
  10. What causes increased BUN?
    Pre-renal
    • 1. dehydration
    • 2. cardiac failure
    • 3. diabetes mellitus
  11. Renal cause for increaseed BUN
    • 1. Polycystic kidney disease
    • 2. Glomerulonephritis
  12. Post-renal cause for increased BUN
    • 1. obstruction of lower urinary tract
    • 2. kidney stones
    • 3. enlarged prostate
  13. What is azotemia?
    increased NPNs in the blood (unusually high amounts of nitrogen waste products in bloodstream) means kidney failure treated with Dialysis or kidney transplant
  14. What is the function of creatine and phosphocreatine?
    They are high energy storage in the brain and muscle.
  15. What does creatine and phosphocreatine break down into?
    • Creatinine
    • Normal range is .6 - 1.2mg/dL
  16. Where does creatine and phosphocreatine break down?
    in the muscle
  17. When is serum creatinine increased?
    • 1. muscle destruction
    • 2. kidney disease
  18. What are two test to assess kidney function?
    • 1. BUN
    • 2. creatinine
  19. What is uric acid the breakdown product of?
    • Nucleic acid aka
    • Nucleoproteins or purines
  20. Where is uric acid formed ?
    in the liver
  21. Which food are high in purines?
    • 1.meat
    • 2.fish
    • 3.poultry
    • 4.organ meats- liver, kidney
    • 5.coffee, caffeine, cocoa
  22. When is uric acid increased in the serum (bloodstream)?
    • 1. gout-painful arthritis
    • 2. cell turnover disease
  23. What is gout?
    Hyperuricemia (high uric acid in the blood)uric acid crystal deposit in joint especially in the big toe
  24. Where is ammonia made?
    • 1. bacteria in the intestine
    • 2. breakdown of protein in the liver
    • 3. kidney tubules
  25. Failure of which organ would cause increased serum ammonia?
    the liver
  26. What are amino acids?
    the building blocks of protein
  27. What are the different plasma proteins and where are each made?
    • 1.albumin-in the liver
    • 2.fibrinogen- in the liver
    • 3.alpha-globulins-in the liver
    • 4.beta-globulins-in the liver
    • 5.gamma-globulins-in the RES systems(reticuloendothelial system)
    • Lymphocytes make the gamma globulins
  28. What are protein functions?
    • 1.storage for amino acids (liver uses amino acids)
    • 2.used for energy
    • 3.transports things through the bloodstream
  29. What is the function of each of the following protein fractions?
    55% of protein
    • 1.albumin-maintaining normal blood volume
    • 2.fibrinogen-necessary for clotting
    • 3.gamma-globulins- are antibodies in response to MMR
  30. What does TSP stand for?
    Total Serum Protein
  31. What does TSP measure?
    • It measures the sum of all albumin and all globulins
    • Normal range 6.0 - 8.3g/dL
  32. What causes increased TSP?
    • 1. dehydration
    • 2. multiple myeloma (cancer of tissue that makes gamma globins)
  33. What causes decreased TSP?
    • 1. kidney disease or failure-leaks proteins
    • 2. liver disease
  34. What does A/G ratio stand for?
    albumin divided by globulins

    • Albumin
    • Globulins
  35. What is a normal A/G ratio results?
    1.0-2.5
  36. In which diseases is the A/G ratio decreased?
    • 1. liver disease
    • 2. kidney disease
    • 3. multiple myeloma
  37. What is electrophoresis?
    used to separate proteins into specific fractions by the movement of charged particles in an electric field

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