orchestration final.txt

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orchestration final.txt
2010-12-13 16:06:13

Orchestration final review
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  1. Order of instruments on standard orchestral score.
    flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba, percussion, harp, strings
  2. The four instrumental groups in the orchestral.
    woodwinds, brass, percussion, strings
  3. Names of open strings of instruments in string section.
    • violin - GDAE
    • viola - CGDA
    • cello - CGDA
    • bass – EADG
  4. Ranges (practical or commonly used according to Kennan – these are the black notes in his range charts) of instruments in string section (using the convention middle C = C4.)
    • violin - G3-B6
    • viola - C3-C6
    • cello - C2-C5
    • bass - E1-A3
  5. Clefs used by instruments in string section. violin - treble
    • viola - alto, treble
    • cello - tenor, bass, treble
    • bass – bass
  6. Fingerings and notes of 1st position violin G/D string A/E string
    • G/D string
    • 1st finger 0-3
    • 2nd finger 3-5
    • 3rd finger 4-6
    • 4th finger 6-8
    • A/E string
    • 1st finger 0-3
    • 2nd finger 2-4
    • 3rd finger 4-6
    • 4th finger 6-8
  7. The overtone series up to the 10th partial.
    C2, C3, G3, C4, E4, G4, Bb4, C5, D5, E510.
  8. Legato
    group of notes slurred together, on the string
  9. detache
    each note is bowed separately, on the string
  10. martele
    the bow begins and remains on the string, moving quickly and stopping abruptly at the end of each stroke
  11. loure
    two or more notes are taken in one bow, with separate pressure on each note
  12. slurred staccato
    a series of notes taken with a separate push for each note in the same bow
  13. spiccato
    light bow stroke where the bow bounces off the string, taking one note to each bow
  14. jete
    the bow bounces on the string very rapidly with a down-bow stroke in such a way as to sound a group of repeated notes
  15. successive down bows
    creates a vigorous or savage effect
  16. Successive up bows
    delicate effect at softer dynamic levels
  17. unmeasured tremolo
    the bow is moved back and forth over the string as rapidly as possible, produces excitement or ethereal effect
  18. measured tremolo
    definite number of repeated notes, the number being shown by the notation
  19. fingered tremolo
    one finger remains fixed on the lower of 2 notes while another finger alternately plays and releases the upper note very rapidly.
  20. sul tasto
    playing over the fingerboard, sound is softer and less resonant
  21. sul ponticello
    at or near the bridge, sound is glassy and eerie in quality
  22. con legno
    with the back of the bow, striking the string with the wood or drawing the wood across the strings
  23. scratch tone
    bow hair flat against the strings while pressure is exerted, raspy tone
  24. pizz.
  25. arco
    use bow
  26. glissando
    the finger slides along the string instead of stopping each note separately
  27. portamento
    same as glissando
  28. sul A, D, etc
    string that is to be used to play a natural harmonic
  29. Natural harmonics (technique and notation – two ways.)
    touch a string at a specified interval to create a harmonic, notated as either a note with a small circle over it OR a diamond-shaped note
  30. Artificial harmonics (technique and notation.)
    the string is pressed and touched at an interval of a 4th to create any harmonic note, notated as a note with a hollow diamond-shaped note at a 4th above
  31. muted
    con sordina, avec sourdine
  32. without mute
    senza sordina, hotel la sourdine
  33. at the bridge
    sul ponticello, ser le chevalet
  34. over the fingerboard
    sul tasto, sur la touche
  35. with the wood of the bow
    con legno, ave le bis
  36. at the point of the bow
    punta d’arco, de la pointe
  37. at the frog
    at tallone, du talon
  38. Ranges and transpositions: Flute
    C4-D7, D4-Bb6, no transposition
  39. Ranges and transpositions: Piccolo
    D4-C7, G4-A6, sounding an octave higher
  40. Ranges and transpositions: Oboe
    Bb3-A6, C4-D6, no transposition
  41. Ranges and transpositions: Bb Clarinet
    E3-C7, E3-G6, sounding M2 lower
  42. Ranges and transpositions: Bassoon
    Bb1-Eb5, Bb1-Bb4, no transposition
  43. Ranges and transpositions: Tenor Saxophone
    Bb3-F6, sounding M9 lower
  44. Ranges and transpositions: Alto Saxophone
    Bb3-F6, sounding M6 lower
  45. The instrument of which Kennan says “is something of a temperamental prima donna”.
  46. The instrument of which Kennan says “its characteristic quality is a relatively neutral one that is apt to be largely absorbed by any other orchestral color it is doubled with.”
  47. According to Kennan the instrument which is, of all woodwind instruments, the most sensitive in the matter of dynamic range and control.
  48. Piccolo registers
    • D5-B5 weak, breathy
    • C6-C7 brighter, stronger
    • D7-G7 brilliant, powerful
    • A7-C8 piercing
  49. Flute registers
    • C4-B4 weak, breathy
    • C5-C6 brighter, stronger
    • D6-A6 brilliant, powerful
    • Bb6-D7 piercing
  50. Alto flute registers
    • C4-B4 attractive but easily covered
    • C5-C6 brighter, stronger
    • D6-A6 less characteristic
    • B6-C7 shrill, little use
  51. Oboe registers
    • Bb3-Db4 thick
    • D4-G5 reedy, sweet
    • A5-Eb6 thinner, less characteristic
    • E6-A6 apt to be pinched
  52. English horn registers
    • B3-G4 reedy, intense
    • A4-G5 reedy, mellow
    • A5-G6 thinner, less characteristic
  53. Eb clarinet registers
    • E3-B4 neutral, inflexible coloristically
    • C5-D6 brighter
    • E6-C7 shrill
  54. Clarinet registers
    • E3-D4 dark
    • E4-B4 neutral
    • C5-C6 bright, clear
    • D6-G6 shrill
    • Ab6-C7 very difficult
  55. Bass clarinet registers
    • Eb2-D3 dark, rich
    • E3-B3 full, reedy
    • C4-C5 brighter, less characteristic
    • D5-G5 strained, "white"
  56. Bassoon registers
    • Bb1-Bb2 dark, full
    • C3-C4 neutral
    • D4-Bb4 thin, but intense
    • B4-Eb5 pinched
  57. Contrabassoon registers
    • Bb1-Bb2 thick, dark
    • C3-C4 neutral
    • D4-Bb4 seldom used
  58. Names of the clarinet registers
    • Chalumeau - bottom octave
    • Middle - E4-C5
    • Clarion - C5 and up
  59. Whether or not it is easy to play pianissimo in the very bottom few notes of the bassoon
    Not easy
  60. The minimum constitution of the woodwind section in a professional orchestra.
    2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, plus any other as needed
  61. Methods of combining instruments of different kinds in a chord. Know the advantages and disadvantages of each method as applied to various orchestral instruments.
    juxtaposition, interlocking, enclosed, overlapping
  62. The current and usually preferable practice of spacing upper woodwinds: open or closed. Know the exceptions to this practice.
    closed, octave gap
  63. In the brass section the instrument that should be doubled at mf or louder.
  64. Timbre qualities of doubling woodwinds with brass.
    makes the brass less transparent and brilliant in timbre
  65. Best way to render broken octaves (in piano music) for strings.
    tremolo with doubling at the octave
  66. How to best achieve the effect of a melody standing out clearly from the background music.
    give melody to one color, background to another
  67. Kennan’s warning about the constant use of mixed or composite colors.
    makes a score sound nondescript and opaque
  68. Ranges of the following timpani: 32 – 30-inch, 29 – 28-inch, 26 – 25-inch, and 23-inch. You do not have to memorize the sizes (in inches), just the ranges.
    D2-A2, F2-C3, Bb2-F3, D3-A3
  69. What part of the timpano range the most characteristic timpani sound is found. Middle
  70. The standard number of timpani in the orchestra
  71. How to notate a change of pitch for timpani in English, French and Italian.
    Change, changez, muta
  72. According to Kennan, which is easier on mallet instruments: playing entirely on “white” keys or playing on white and black keys?
  73. The range and transposition of a 5-octave marimba.
    c2.- e5
  74. The range and transposition of a glockenspiel (orchestra bells).
    Sounds 2 octaves higher, g3-c6
  75. Range and transposition of the harp, four-octave celesta and piano.
    • Cb 1 – g#7
    • Celesta sounds 8va higher C3- C7
    • A0 – C8
  76. Types of staffs and clefs used for percussion instruments of indefinite pitch.
    Neutral or no clef
  77. How to notate the flam, drag, four-stroke ruff, roll, rim shot (according to Kennan).
    Flam grace note, two 16th, three 16th, three slashes trill
  78. What does laissez vibrer mean? How do you notate it? What instruments might use this notation? How do you indicate the opposite of laissez vibrer?
    Let vibrate, whole note with tie going nowhere
  79. The difference between tam-tam and gong.
    Tamtam is flat or slightly convex. Gong is dome shaped produces def pitch.
  80. What instrument was created to duplicate the sound of the “jaw-bone of an ass”?
    The vibra slap
  81. What is the basic setup of the drum (or trap) set?
    Snare, toms sus cymbals high hat bas
  82. The minimum number of percussion players in most professional orchestras.
    3 and a timpanist
  83. How many strings per octave does a harp have?
  84. How the pedal mechanism of the harp works and what it does in regards to pitch.
    Push it down raises pitch
  85. How to notate pedal settings at the beginning of a work.
    • E f g# ab
    • Bb c# Db
  86. How to notate changes in pedal settings.
    Just the letter name
  87. For maximum sonority from the harp which is preferable: flat keys or sharp keys?
  88. Of the three registers of the piano (low, middle, high), which one is least effective in the context of the orchestra.
  89. Guitar
    E3-E6, 8ve lower
  90. Mandolin
    G3-E6, as written
  91. What is Kennan’s warning about using the altissimo range of the saxophone?
    The bottom 4th of the range is usable, but the notes above C7 are difficult to produce.
  92. The preferable way of doing rehearsal numbers or letters.
    must be included in both the score and parts, enclosed in a square or circle
  93. What pairs of instruments should not be on the same staff.
    instruments that use different transpositions.
  94. What is the standard size of player’s parts in professional situations?
    9.5 x 13
  95. What distance apart should ledger lines be?
    the same distance apart as the lines in the staff
  96. How many string parts do you need for an orchestra with 10 1st violins and 10 2nd violins?
  97. How are rests of more than two measures indicated in player’s parts? What should be done if there is a rehearsal number in the middle of the rest?
    with the bar and number of rests, the rests are split at the rehearsal number
  98. What are reference* cues and cues that may have to be played? Where are reference cues most often included? Where else are they useful? What key should they be written in?
    notes that can be played if the part represented is weak, included in an important voice that can easily be heard, also useful for counting rests, write in the key of the instrument reading the cue
  99. What is the format for player’s parts? Where should you place the name of the composition, the composer and arranger’s names, and the name of the instrument that will play the part?
    label each part, center the name of the composition at the top of the page, composer and arranger in top right, name of instrument in upper left
  100. How should the part be prepared if page turning is required?
    copy so that there is sufficient rest time at the bottom of the page to turn
  101. The open strings of the guitar.
    E2, A2, D3, G3, B3, E4
  102. The open strings of the mandolin.
    G3, D4, A4, E5
  103. What is pointillistic orchestration?
    fragmented to the point of each instrument only playing one or two notes
  104. What is Klangfarbenmelodie?
    changing colors in the middle of a melody
  105. What is “sound mass”?
    middle ground in which individual pitches have little meaning other than to create a sound mass
  106. What are the differences between chordal, homophonic and polyphonic music?
    chordal uses a succession of chords, homophonic has a melodic line against a harmonic background, and polyphonic uses individual lines to create countermelodies.
  107. Extreme registers.
    were generally avoided, but used in the 20th century for proving the value of normal tessutira.
  108. Unusual spacing.
    generally sounds unsatisfactory and empty in the middle.
  109. Contrapuntal dynamics.
    dynamic markings that operate independent of the various parts
  110. What is a “sneak in”?
    An instrument starts so softly that the listener can't hear it. Then it slowly increases in dynamic.
  111. Overtone reinforcement.
    having instruments softly play certain upper partials of a fundamental
  112. Two inherent dangers in Klangfarbenmelodie type of orchestration.
    temptation to let color substitute for a strong melodic line, and a constantly changing orchestral palette can be as monotonous as one that never changes.
  113. The brass instrument most capable of blending well with woodwinds or brass.
  114. The main way tone quality is controlled on the horn.
    The position of the players hand in the bell
  115. The “fp” effect.
    Achieved by stopping the sound, has a sharp edge
  116. The function of the three valves on the trumpet – the harmonic series available when a valve or valve combination is depressed.
    Lower pitch, 1 by M2, 2 by m2, 3 by m3
  117. What valve combination on the trumpet is required for a half-step trill on middle C (Db to C).
    Fully open to fully closed
  118. The slide positions of the trombone – the harmonic series available with each position.
    7 positions, each descending by half step, series starting at 2
  119. The trombone register where the problem of position becomes less acute.
    Upper register
  120. The largest interval for a ‘real’ glissando on the trombone
  121. How many horns are required to balance one trumpet at mf or louder.
  122. The make-up of the average orchestral brass section.
    4 horns, 2-3 trumptets, 3 trombones, tuba
  123. Range and transposition Horn
    A2-G5, P5 lower
  124. Range and transposition Trumpet
    F#3-Bb5, M2 lower
  125. Range and transposition Tenor Trombone
    F2-Bb4, as written
  126. Range and transposition Bass Trombone
    C2-F4, as written
  127. Range and transposition Tuba
    F1-A3, as written (F1-F2 written 8vb)
  128. Division of labor in horns
    • 1 and 3 C4-G5
    • 2 and 4 A2-C5
  129. Bouche
  130. Cuivre
  131. Lontano
    Distant, achieved by stopping horn
  132. Con sordino
    With mute
  133. Senza sordino
    Without mute
  134. Sourdine
    With mute
  135. Sans sourdine
    Without mute