Card Set Information
Orchestration final review
Order of instruments on standard orchestral score.
flute, oboe, clarinet, bassoon, horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba, percussion, harp, strings
The four instrumental groups in the orchestral.
woodwinds, brass, percussion, strings
Names of open strings of instruments in string section.
violin - GDAE
viola - CGDA
cello - CGDA
bass – EADG
Ranges (practical or commonly used according to Kennan – these are the black notes in his range charts) of instruments in string section (using the convention middle C = C4.)
violin - G3-B6
viola - C3-C6
cello - C2-C5
bass - E1-A3
Clefs used by instruments in string section. violin - treble
viola - alto, treble
cello - tenor, bass, treble
bass – bass
Fingerings and notes of 1st position violin G/D string A/E string
1st finger 0-3
2nd finger 3-5
3rd finger 4-6
4th finger 6-8
1st finger 0-3
2nd finger 2-4
3rd finger 4-6
4th finger 6-8
The overtone series up to the 10th partial.
C2, C3, G3, C4, E4, G4, Bb4, C5, D5, E510.
group of notes slurred together, on the string
each note is bowed separately, on the string
the bow begins and remains on the string, moving quickly and stopping abruptly at the end of each stroke
two or more notes are taken in one bow, with separate pressure on each note
a series of notes taken with a separate push for each note in the same bow
light bow stroke where the bow bounces off the string, taking one note to each bow
the bow bounces on the string very rapidly with a down-bow stroke in such a way as to sound a group of repeated notes
successive down bows
creates a vigorous or savage effect
Successive up bows
delicate effect at softer dynamic levels
the bow is moved back and forth over the string as rapidly as possible, produces excitement or ethereal effect
definite number of repeated notes, the number being shown by the notation
one finger remains fixed on the lower of 2 notes while another finger alternately plays and releases the upper note very rapidly.
playing over the fingerboard, sound is softer and less resonant
at or near the bridge, sound is glassy and eerie in quality
with the back of the bow, striking the string with the wood or drawing the wood across the strings
bow hair flat against the strings while pressure is exerted, raspy tone
the finger slides along the string instead of stopping each note separately
same as glissando
sul A, D, etc
string that is to be used to play a natural harmonic
Natural harmonics (technique and notation – two ways.)
touch a string at a specified interval to create a harmonic, notated as either a note with a small circle over it OR a diamond-shaped note
Artificial harmonics (technique and notation.)
the string is pressed and touched at an interval of a 4th to create any harmonic note, notated as a note with a hollow diamond-shaped note at a 4th above
con sordina, avec sourdine
senza sordina, hotel la sourdine
at the bridge
sul ponticello, ser le chevalet
over the fingerboard
sul tasto, sur la touche
with the wood of the bow
con legno, ave le bis
at the point of the bow
punta d’arco, de la pointe
at the frog
at tallone, du talon
Ranges and transpositions: Flute
C4-D7, D4-Bb6, no transposition
Ranges and transpositions: Piccolo
D4-C7, G4-A6, sounding an octave higher
Ranges and transpositions: Oboe
Bb3-A6, C4-D6, no transposition
Ranges and transpositions: Bb Clarinet
E3-C7, E3-G6, sounding M2 lower
Ranges and transpositions: Bassoon
Bb1-Eb5, Bb1-Bb4, no transposition
Ranges and transpositions: Tenor Saxophone
Bb3-F6, sounding M9 lower
Ranges and transpositions: Alto Saxophone
Bb3-F6, sounding M6 lower
The instrument of which Kennan says “is something of a temperamental prima donna”.
The instrument of which Kennan says “its characteristic quality is a relatively neutral one that is apt to be largely absorbed by any other orchestral color it is doubled with.”
According to Kennan the instrument which is, of all woodwind instruments, the most sensitive in the matter of dynamic range and control.
D5-B5 weak, breathy
C6-C7 brighter, stronger
D7-G7 brilliant, powerful
C4-B4 weak, breathy
C5-C6 brighter, stronger
D6-A6 brilliant, powerful
Alto flute registers
C4-B4 attractive but easily covered
C5-C6 brighter, stronger
D6-A6 less characteristic
B6-C7 shrill, little use
D4-G5 reedy, sweet
A5-Eb6 thinner, less characteristic
E6-A6 apt to be pinched
English horn registers
B3-G4 reedy, intense
A4-G5 reedy, mellow
A5-G6 thinner, less characteristic
Eb clarinet registers
E3-B4 neutral, inflexible coloristically
C5-C6 bright, clear
Ab6-C7 very difficult
Bass clarinet registers
Eb2-D3 dark, rich
E3-B3 full, reedy
C4-C5 brighter, less characteristic
D5-G5 strained, "white"
Bb1-Bb2 dark, full
D4-Bb4 thin, but intense
Bb1-Bb2 thick, dark
D4-Bb4 seldom used
Names of the clarinet registers
Chalumeau - bottom octave
Middle - E4-C5
Clarion - C5 and up
Whether or not it is easy to play pianissimo in the very bottom few notes of the bassoon
The minimum constitution of the woodwind section in a professional orchestra.
2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2 bassoons, plus any other as needed
Methods of combining instruments of different kinds in a chord. Know the advantages and disadvantages of each method as applied to various orchestral instruments.
juxtaposition, interlocking, enclosed, overlapping
The current and usually preferable practice of spacing upper woodwinds: open or closed. Know the exceptions to this practice.
closed, octave gap
In the brass section the instrument that should be doubled at mf or louder.
Timbre qualities of doubling woodwinds with brass.
makes the brass less transparent and brilliant in timbre
Best way to render broken octaves (in piano music) for strings.
tremolo with doubling at the octave
How to best achieve the effect of a melody standing out clearly from the background music.
give melody to one color, background to another
Kennan’s warning about the constant use of mixed or composite colors.
makes a score sound nondescript and opaque
Ranges of the following timpani: 32 – 30-inch, 29 – 28-inch, 26 – 25-inch, and 23-inch. You do not have to memorize the sizes (in inches), just the ranges.
D2-A2, F2-C3, Bb2-F3, D3-A3
What part of the timpano range the most characteristic timpani sound is found. Middle
The standard number of timpani in the orchestra
How to notate a change of pitch for timpani in English, French and Italian.
Change, changez, muta
According to Kennan, which is easier on mallet instruments: playing entirely on “white” keys or playing on white and black keys?
The range and transposition of a 5-octave marimba.
The range and transposition of a glockenspiel (orchestra bells).
Sounds 2 octaves higher, g3-c6
Range and transposition of the harp, four-octave celesta and piano.
Cb 1 – g#7
Celesta sounds 8va higher C3- C7
A0 – C8
Types of staffs and clefs used for percussion instruments of indefinite pitch.
Neutral or no clef
How to notate the flam, drag, four-stroke ruff, roll, rim shot (according to Kennan).
Flam grace note, two 16th, three 16th, three slashes trill
What does laissez vibrer mean? How do you notate it? What instruments might use this notation? How do you indicate the opposite of laissez vibrer?
Let vibrate, whole note with tie going nowhere
The difference between tam-tam and gong.
Tamtam is flat or slightly convex. Gong is dome shaped produces def pitch.
What instrument was created to duplicate the sound of the “jaw-bone of an ass”?
The vibra slap
What is the basic setup of the drum (or trap) set?
Snare, toms sus cymbals high hat bas
The minimum number of percussion players in most professional orchestras.
3 and a timpanist
How many strings per octave does a harp have?
How the pedal mechanism of the harp works and what it does in regards to pitch.
Push it down raises pitch
How to notate pedal settings at the beginning of a work.
E f g# ab
Bb c# Db
How to notate changes in pedal settings.
Just the letter name
For maximum sonority from the harp which is preferable: flat keys or sharp keys?
Of the three registers of the piano (low, middle, high), which one is least effective in the context of the orchestra.
E3-E6, 8ve lower
G3-E6, as written
What is Kennan’s warning about using the altissimo range of the saxophone?
The bottom 4th of the range is usable, but the notes above C7 are difficult to produce.
The preferable way of doing rehearsal numbers or letters.
must be included in both the score and parts, enclosed in a square or circle
What pairs of instruments should not be on the same staff.
instruments that use different transpositions.
What is the standard size of player’s parts in professional situations?
9.5 x 13
What distance apart should ledger lines be?
the same distance apart as the lines in the staff
How many string parts do you need for an orchestra with 10 1st violins and 10 2nd violins?
How are rests of more than two measures indicated in player’s parts? What should be done if there is a rehearsal number in the middle of the rest?
with the bar and number of rests, the rests are split at the rehearsal number
What are reference* cues and cues that may have to be played? Where are reference cues most often included? Where else are they useful? What key should they be written in?
notes that can be played if the part represented is weak, included in an important voice that can easily be heard, also useful for counting rests, write in the key of the instrument reading the cue
What is the format for player’s parts? Where should you place the name of the composition, the composer and arranger’s names, and the name of the instrument that will play the part?
label each part, center the name of the composition at the top of the page, composer and arranger in top right, name of instrument in upper left
How should the part be prepared if page turning is required?
copy so that there is sufficient rest time at the bottom of the page to turn
The open strings of the guitar.
E2, A2, D3, G3, B3, E4
The open strings of the mandolin.
G3, D4, A4, E5
What is pointillistic orchestration?
fragmented to the point of each instrument only playing one or two notes
What is Klangfarbenmelodie?
changing colors in the middle of a melody
What is “sound mass”?
middle ground in which individual pitches have little meaning other than to create a sound mass
What are the differences between chordal, homophonic and polyphonic music?
chordal uses a succession of chords, homophonic has a melodic line against a harmonic background, and polyphonic uses individual lines to create countermelodies.
were generally avoided, but used in the 20th century for proving the value of normal tessutira.
generally sounds unsatisfactory and empty in the middle.
dynamic markings that operate independent of the various parts
What is a “sneak in”?
An instrument starts so softly that the listener can't hear it. Then it slowly increases in dynamic.
having instruments softly play certain upper partials of a fundamental
Two inherent dangers in Klangfarbenmelodie type of orchestration.
temptation to let color substitute for a strong melodic line, and a constantly changing orchestral palette can be as monotonous as one that never changes.
The brass instrument most capable of blending well with woodwinds or brass.
The main way tone quality is controlled on the horn.
The position of the players hand in the bell
The “fp” effect.
Achieved by stopping the sound, has a sharp edge
The function of the three valves on the trumpet – the harmonic series available when a valve or valve combination is depressed.
Lower pitch, 1 by M2, 2 by m2, 3 by m3
What valve combination on the trumpet is required for a half-step trill on middle C (Db to C).
Fully open to fully closed
The slide positions of the trombone – the harmonic series available with each position.
7 positions, each descending by half step, series starting at 2
The trombone register where the problem of position becomes less acute.
The largest interval for a ‘real’ glissando on the trombone
How many horns are required to balance one trumpet at mf or louder.
The make-up of the average orchestral brass section.
4 horns, 2-3 trumptets, 3 trombones, tuba
Range and transposition Horn
A2-G5, P5 lower
Range and transposition Trumpet
F#3-Bb5, M2 lower
Range and transposition Tenor Trombone
F2-Bb4, as written
Range and transposition Bass Trombone
C2-F4, as written
Range and transposition Tuba
F1-A3, as written (F1-F2 written 8vb)
Division of labor in horns
1 and 3 C4-G5
2 and 4 A2-C5
Distant, achieved by stopping horn