A&P II Final Exam Study

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kieu
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A&P II Final Exam Study
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2010-12-14 11:44:55
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anatomy physiology final exam kieu dorsey gonshor
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A&P II final exam study taken from 5 unit tests.
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  1. After your patient suffers a stroke, he can understand you but cannot speak. Which area of the cerebral cortex has most likey been damaged?

    A. Broca's
    B. Auditory association
    C. Primary somatosensory
    D. Wernicke's
    A. Broca's speech: main 'speech area'; left side of brain

    Wernicke's: understanding what someone else says
    Auditory association: relates things from past
    Primary association: main 'body-speech' area
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  2. Which of the following are true regarding the thalamus?

    A. It is a a major sensory relay station
    B. A, B, and D are correct
    C. The internal capsule connects it to the cerebral cortex
    D. A and B are correct
    E. It has some motor functions
    B. A, B, and D are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  3. You are using a laser in a glaucoma patient to "open up" a part of the eye to help the aqueous humor drain better. What would you aim it at?

    A. Lens
    B. Sclera
    C. Canal of Schlemm
    D. Choroid
    C. Canal of Schlemm: aqueous humor drains into this venous sinus

    Choroid: absorbs light; nurses retina
    Sclera: is the very tough, protective shell
    Lens: is a protein
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  4. The Limbic system..

    A. includes the olfactory bulbs
    B. is incolved in emotions and memory
    C. includes the primary motor area
    D. A and B are correct
    E. A, B and C are correct
    • D. A and B are correct
    • Primary motor area: belongs in the Cerebrum
    • Limbic system: Limbic lobes, olfactory bulbs, mammary bodies of the hypothalamus, and amygadala (anger/rage tendencies)
  5. What is the function of the auditory ossicles?

    A. They transfer otoliths from the urticle to the saccule.
    B. They transfer the fluid from semicircular canals to the ampulla.
    C. They transfer the vibrations of the tympanic membrane to the oval window.
    D. They are sensory receptors which transduce sound waves into electrical impulses
    C. They transfer the vibrations of the typanic membrane to the oval window
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  6. Which of the following cranial nerves has some ANS function?

    A. I
    B. XII
    C. IV
    D. IX
    E. II
    D. IX: Glossopharyngeal Nerve (tongue/throat); located in medulla and ends in tongue and throat; function is swallowing & speech; ANS
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  7. Cranial Nerves..

    A. A and B are correct
    B. A, B and C are correct
    C. pass through the foramina in the skull.
    D. are numbered with Roman numerals from anterior to posterior.
    E. have names which usually tell something about their location or function.
    B.A, B, and C are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Your patient has retinitis pigmentosa which has caused destruction of many of the rods inside his eyes. Which of the following syptoms is he likely to have?

    A. loss of "night" vision
    B. loss of perpheral vision
    C. A, B, and C are correct
    D. A and B are correct
    E. loss of color vision
    D. A and B are correct; both perphera and "night" vision would be lost
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  9. The reticular fomation..

    A. helps to keep you awake in class by arousing the brain and helping to maintain consciousness
    B. passes through the entire brain stem
    C. A and B are correct
    D. A, B, and C are correct
    E. has both sensory and motor functions.
    D. A, B, and C are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  10. The lens..

    A. is anterior to the pupil.
    B. is made of lipids
    C. lies between the cornea and the iris
    D. can change shape when the ciliary muscle contracts.
    E. is part of the fibrous tunic.
    D. Can change shape when the ciliary muscle contracts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  11. Your patient has a pituitary tumor that is causing very severe compression of the optic chiasm. Where will the patient most likeyly lose some visual function?

    A. Both eyes
    B. Right eye only
    C. Left eye only
    A. both eyes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  12. The basal ganglia..

    A. A and B are correct
    B. are part of the diencephalon
    C. works with the substantia nigra
    D. A, B, and C are correct
    E. helps control automatic, subconscious muscle movement.
    A. A and B are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  13. Which of the following are correct regarding the ANS?

    A. Most organs in the ANS have dual innervation
    B. The parasympathetic division increases tearing, increases salication, contracts the urinary bladder, and increases smooth muscle contractions and glandular secretions in the digestive system
    C. The sympathetic division increases sweating, has a major effect on smooth muscle in blood vessel walls throughtout the body, increases heart rate, increases epinephrine relealse from the adrenal glands, and dilates the pupils.
    D. The hypothalamus is the major control center.
    E. All of the above are correct
    E. All of the above are correct
  14. Which cranial nerves allow you to feel pain in your face and move your head and shoulders?

    A. V and XI
    B. IV and XII
    C. X and VIII
    D. III, IV, and VI
    E. VII and IX
    A. V and XI: Trigeminal nerve (V) and Assessory nerve (XI)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  15. Which cranial nerves allow you to produce saliva and taste your food?

    A. IV and XII
    B. X and VIII
    C. V and XI
    D. III, IV, and VI
    E. VII and IX
    E. VII and IX: Vestibuluocochlear nerve (VIII) and Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. Which crainal nerves allow you to listen to music and digest your food?

    A. V and XI
    B. III, IV, and VI
    C. IV and XII
    D. X and VIII
    E. VII and IX
    D. II, IV, and VI: Optic nerve (II), Trochlear nerve (IV), and Abducens nerve (VI)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  17. Which cranial nerve stimulates the orbicularis oculi muscle that helps you to close your eyes?

    A. V
    B. III
    C. IV
    D. VI
    E. VII
    E. VII: Vestibulocochlear nerve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  18. Your patient has had a stroke and he ca no longer taste his grandma's apple pie. Which lobe of the cerebrum has most likely been damaged?

    A. parietal
    B. occipital
    C. temporal
    D. None of the above are correct
    A.parietal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  19. You are seeing a patient who had a stroke. You ask him how he feels and he says "Grass pepsi hat dance." Which area of cerebral cortex has mostly been damaged?

    A. premotor
    B. primary auditory
    C. Wernicke's
    D. Broca's
    C. Wernicke's
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  20. Which of the following are correct?

    A. Cholinergic neurons release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
    B. Both A and B are correct
    C. Neither A or B are correct
    D. Adrenergic neurons release the neurotransmitter norepinephrin.
    B. Both A and B are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. Your patient has a stroke which has resulted in death from sudden respiratory areest. Which part of the brain stem was most likely affected?

    A. tectum
    B. A and B are correct
    C. A, B, and C are correct
    D. substantia nigra
    E. pons
    E. Pons
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  22. Your patient suffers a stroke from a blood clot which came from one of the major blood vessels that supplies the brain. Which vessels could the blood clot have possibly come from?

    A. internal carotid arteries
    B. A and B are correct
    C. vertebral arteries
    D. axillary arteries
    E. A, B, and C are correct
    B. A and B are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  23. The amygdala..

    A. is the "anger and rage" center
    B. is the part of the "emotional brain"
    C. is the largest section of the diencephalon
    D. A and B are correct
    E. A, B, and C are correct
    • D. A and B are correct
  24. You are seeing a patient who has had a stroke. The patient is blind aafter the stroke. Which lobes of the cerebrum have most likely been damaged?

    A. parietal
    B. temporal
    C. frontal
    D. occipital
    D. occipital
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  25. Your seizure patient has an abnormality in the cerebral cortex which causes him to believe he smells bacon just before each seizure. Which lobe of the cerebrum most likely has the abnormaility which is causing him to "smell the same smell" just before each seizure?

    A. temporal
    B. parietal
    C. frontal
    D. occipital
    A. temporal
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  26. The cerebellum..

    A. helps maintain equilibrum by adjusting motor signals to skeletal muscles.
    B. A and B are correct
    C. sends corrective nerve impulses to the motor areas of the cerebrum.
    D. A, B, and C are correct
    E. receives input from the utricle, saccule and smicircular canals.
    D. A, B, and C are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  27. If you wanted to invent a new glaucoma eyedrop to decrease the pressure in the eye by decreasing aqueous humor production, what structure would you target?

    A. ciliary muscle
    B. lens
    C. ciliary processes
    D. choroid
    E. iris
    C. ciliary processes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  28. What makes the oily substance that helps prevent evaporation of tears?

    A. tarsal gland
    B. lacrimal caruncle
    C. lacrimal gland
    D. conjunctiva
    A. tarsal gland
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. What makes mucous membrane thatl ines the inside of the eye lids?

    A. lacrimal caruncle
    B. tarsal gland
    C. lacrimal gland
    D. conjunctiva
    D. conjunctiva
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. What makes tears?

    A. conjunctiva
    B. lacrimal gland
    C. tarsal gland
    D. lacrimal caruncle
    B. lacrimal gland
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  31. Which has a dilated portion called an ampulla?

    A. semicircular canals
    B. utricle and saccule
    C. round window
    D. organ of Corti
    A. semicircular canals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  32. Which contains receptors involved in static equilibrium?

    A. semicircular canals
    B. utricle and saccule
    C. organ of Corti
    D. round window
    B: utricle and saccule
  33. Which contains receptors for hearing?

    A. semicircular canals
    B. utricle and saccule
    C. organ of Corti
    D. round window
    C: organ of Corti
  34. Which make stem cells?

    A. Olfactory receptors
    B. Supporting cells
    C. Olfactory glands
    D. Basal cells
    D: basal cells
  35. Which make mucous?

    A. Olfactory receptors
    B. Supporting cells
    C. Olfactory glands
    D. Basal cells
    C: olfactory glands
  36. Which are neurons which have "hairs" on their dendrites?

    A. Supporting cells
    B. Olfactory glands
    C. Olfactory receptors
    D. Basal cells
    C. olfactory receptors
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  37. Place the following in the correct order of sound transmission through the ear:

    1. stapes presses against oval window
    2. hair bundles bend against tectorial membrane
    3. basilar membrane vibrates
    4. tympanic membrane vibrates
    5. auricle directs sound into external auditory canal
    5,4,1,3,2
  38. A patient with a disease called macular degeneration loses cone function. What symptoms may the patient likely experience?

    A. worsening of central vision
    B. A, B, and C are correct
    C. worsening of "night" vision
    D. A and B are correct
    E. worsening of peripheral vision
    A. worsening of central vision
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  39. Which crainial nerve is sensory and conducts the nerve impulses for the sense of smell?

    A. I
    B. IV
    C. V
    D. II
    E. III
    A. I: Olfactory nerve
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  40. The band of axons that connects and conducts impulses between the right and left cerebral hemispheres is called ______.
    Corpus callosum
  41. Damage to cranial nerve II would cause at least partial loss of _____.
    vision
  42. The major region of the brain which helps with posture, balance, coordination and makes possible all skilled muscular activities is called the _____.
    cerebellum
  43. Nociceptors are located in every tissue of the body except the _____.
    Brain
  44. Since the cornea and lens are curved, they can bend or _____ light so that the light can be focused on the retina.
    refract
  45. Retinal is a derivative of vitamin __.
    A
  46. A patient with a tumor cannot stick out his tongue. The cranial nerve which has most likely been damaged is the ____ nerve.
    hypoglossal (XII)
  47. The primary auditory area is located in the ____ bone.
    temporal
  48. The structure which allows tears to pass from the lacrimal sac to the nasal cavity is called the _____ ____.
    nasolacrimal duct
  49. With age, our ability to see up cloase and read decreases. The name for this condition is _____.
    presbyopia
  50. A child has severe diarrhea from an intestinal virus. Which condition is the child likely to develop?

    A. metabolic acidosis
    B. respiratory acidosis
    C. metbolic alkalosis
    D. respiratory alkadosis
    C. metbolic alkalosis

    metabolic acidosis: metabolic b/c not the lungs; acidosis b/c arterial blood pH is below 7.35
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  51. Only one that can cross the placenta.

    A. IgA
    B. IgE
    C. IgG
    D. IgM
    E. IgD
    C. IgG

    IgG: gets across the placenta
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. First antibody class to be secreted after exposure to a foreign antigen.

    A. IgD
    B. IgG
    C. IgM
    D. IgE
    E. IgA
    C. IgM

    IgM: Main one that responds 1st
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. Found in many body fluid.

    a. IgE
    b. IgA
    c. IgM
    d. IgD
    e. IgG
    • b. IgA
    • IgA: in All body fluids
  54. Your patient, Mr. Jones, has extremely poor lung function from inhalation of microwave popcorn fumes ("popcorn lungs"). Which condition is he likely to develop?

    A. metabolic acidosis
    B. respiratory acidosis
    C. metabolic alkalosis
    D. respiratory alkalosis
    B. respiratory acidosis

    respiratory acidosis: lungs can't breather out acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  55. Complement can destroy microbes by..

    A. producing and secreting antibodies
    B. producing interferon
    C. A and B are correct
    D. A, B, and C are correct
    E. cytolysis
    E. cytolysis

    Complement can destroy microbes by:
    1. cytolysis
    2. phagocytosis
    3. inflammation
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  56. Mr. Jones has suffered severe damage from a drug overdose. Which condition is he likely to develop?

    A. respiratory alkalosis
    B. metabolic alkalosis
    C. respiratory acidosis
    D. metabolic acidosis
    D. metabolic acidosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  57. The main way that the body gains water is through..

    A. through the skin
    B. ingestion of liquids
    C. ingestion
    D. aerobic cellular repiration
    e. none of the above
    B. ingestion of liquids
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  58. Your patient was stabbed and losses a large amount of blood. Which of the following would be the most appropriate response of the body to this situation?

    a. ANP increases
    b. ADH decreases
    c. the thrist center is inhibited
    d. aldosterone increases
    e. none of the above are correct
    • d. aldosterone increases
    • aldosterone increases: in response to low blood volume and low blood pressure
  59. Which of the following is true regarding inflammation?

    A. A and B are correct
    B. A, B, and C are correct
    C. phagocytes move to the site of injury due to chemotaxis
    D. it is always due to infection
    E. is is the first line of defense against pathgens
    C. phagocytes move to the site of injury due to chemotaxis

    phagocytes move to the site of tissue injury due to chemotaxis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  60. Mr. Jones has had loss of stomach fluid form prolonged nasogastric suctioning. Which condition is he likely to develop?

    A. respiratory alkalosis
    B. metabolic alkalosis
    C. metabolic acidosis
    D. respiratory acidosis
    B. metabolic alkalosis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  61. Your patient has severe burns. With respect to the topics we discussed in class so far, what problems is your patient at increased risk for?

    A. infection
    B. neither A or B
    C. fluid balance problems
    D. both A and B
    D. both A and B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  62. Buffers..

    A. are slow to react
    B. A, B, and C are correct
    C. can permantly remove acid from the body
    D. A and B are correct
    E. include proteins such as hemoglbin and albumin
    E. include proteins such as hemoglobims and albumin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  63. Natural kill (NK) cells..

    a. are a type of lymphocyte
    b. are a type of T cells
    c. are 1 type of an APC
    d. are a type of B cell
    e. none of the above are correct
    a. are a type of lymphocyte
  64. The lymphatic ducts empty their fluid into the..

    A. lympho-ducto-draino veins
    B. subclavian veins
    C. subseapular veins
    D. brachial veins
    E. axilliary vein
    B. subclavian veins
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. The pharyngeal tonsil is more commonly called the..

    A. adenoid
    B. lingual tonsil
    C. palatine tonsil
    D. throat tonsil
    E. pharyngoid
    A. adenoid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. If blood (hydrostatic) pressure is 35, blood osmotic pressure is 21, interstitial fluid hydrostatic is 1, and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure is 2, whiat is the net filtration pressure?

    A. +13
    B. +14
    C. +15
    D. +16
    C. +15
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. Each of the following electrolytes is found in higher concentrations in extracellular fluid than in intracellular fluid EXCEPT:

    a. K+
    b. Na+
    c. Cl-
    d. HCO3-
    e. Ca2+
    a. K+
  68. Which is made by the adrenal cortex in response to low blood volume and low blood pressure?

    A. ADH
    B. ANP
    C. aldosterone
    D. angiotensin
    E. renin
    C. aldosterone
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. Which is made by the atria in response to high blood volume?

    A. angiotensin
    B. ADH
    C. ANP
    D. renin
    E. aldosterone
    C. ANP
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. Which is made by the hypothalamus in response to increased blood osmolarity and low blood volume?

    A. aldosterone
    B. ANO
    C. renin
    D. ADH
    E. angiotensin
    D. ADH
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. Fluid located in the spaces between the body's cells is called?

    A. intracellular fluid
    B. extrastitial fluid
    C. chyle
    D. interstitial fluid
    E. lymph
    D. interstitial fluid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. Thymosin..

    A. is a hormone made by epithelial cells in spleen
    B. A, B, and C are correct
    C. helps pre-T cells to mature
    D. helps B cells to mature in the bone marroe
    E. A and B are correct
    C. helps pre-T cells to mature
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. A patient has a cancer called malignant melanoma of the right ear. Which region of lymph nodes would most likely be affected first by spread (metastases) of tumor cells?

    A. cervical
    B. inguinal
    C. axillary
    A. cervical

    cervical: neck
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  74. Which of the following is true regarding foreign antigens?

    A. they can include such things as microbes, transplanted tissue cells, and incompatible blood cells.
    B. A and B are correct
    C. they have small parts called endocores which trigger the immune response
    D. A, B and C are correct
    E. they are most often small carhydrates
    A. they can include such things as microbes, transplanted tissue cells, and incompatible blood cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. Substances which quickly but temporarily change strong acids or bases into weak ones are called..

    A. neutralizers
    B. pH stabilizers
    C. buffers
    D. softeners
    E. equalizers
    C. buffers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  76. Which of the following is true regarding cytotoxic T cells?

    A. they can release gamma interferon which attracts phagocytes
    B. A and B are correct
    C. they are also known as CD4 cells
    D. A, B, and C are correct
    E. they can recognize and bind to altered MHC I antigens on affected target body cells
    B. A and B are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  77. Which electrolytes are important for muscle and nerve function?

    a. Ca2+
    b. Mg2+
    c. K+
    d. Na+
    e. all of the above
    e. all of the above
  78. Which of the following are correct regarding antigen receptors?

    a. they are made of proteins
    b. they are found on the cell membranes of our B and T lyphocytes
    c. we have many different antigen receptors due to the process called genetic recombination
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  79. Which of the following cells cannot perform phagocytosis?

    A. eosinophil
    B. macrophage
    C. basophil
    D. neutrophil
    C. basophil
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  80. Which of the following lists the steps of the inflammation in the correct order?

    A. phagocyte emigration, vasoconstriction and increased permeability, tissue repair
    B. vasodilation and increased permeability, phagocyte emigration, tissue repair
    C. vasodiliation and increased permeadility, tissue repair, phagocyte emigration
    B. vasodilation and increased permeability, phagocyte emigration, tissue repair
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  81. Vitamin D is needed to help absorb which of the following ions?

    A. Na+
    B. HCO3+
    C. K+
    D. Cl-
    E. HPO42-
    E. HPO42-
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  82. Which of the following are antigen presenting cells?

    A. natural killer cells, plasma cells
    B. macrophages, dendritic cells
    C. platelets, please help me cells
    D. natural kill cells, T cells
    E. eosinophils, monocytes
    B. macrophages, dendritic cells
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  83. The chemical substance which provids costimulation in the immune syste:

    a. is called interleukin
    b. can costimulate B cells
    c. can co stimulate T cells
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  84. Which protein produced by viral infected cells protects non-infected cells by preventing viral replication?

    A. complement
    B. interferon
    C. lysozyme
    D. replico-no-go
    E. transferrin
    B. interferon
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  85. Which of the following is correct?

    a. MHC antigens are our "self antigens"
    b. MHC I antigens are found on all of our body cells except RBCs
    c. MHC antigens may be useful when trying to matach organ donor with the person who needs the organ transplant
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  86. In the carbonic acid-bicarbonate buffer system:

    A. HCO3- is the strong acid
    B. HCO3- can bind excess H+ present, producing carbonic acid
    C. H2CO3 binds to water and produces CO2
    B. HCO3- can bind excess H+ present, producing carbonic acid
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  87. The cisterna chyli

    a. is the beginning of the thoracic duct
    b. is located anterior to lumbbar vertebra number 2
    c. may contain a milky fluid
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  88. The spleen:

    A. contains red pulp which is mostly lymphocytes arranged around central arteries
    B. filters lymph
    C. is located between the stomach and the diaphragm on the left side of the body
    C. is located between the stomach and the diaphragm on the left side of the body
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  89. Electrolytes are inorganic compounds that break up in solution into ____.
    ions
  90. _____ is the name of the condiition where arterial blood pH is above 7.45.
    alkalosis
  91. Lymph vessels carry lymph in and out of _____ ____.
    Lymph nodes
  92. _______ is an antimicrobial enzyme found in many body fluids.
    lysozyme
  93. Collections of lymphatic nodules in th eileum are called ________ _______.
    peyer's patch
  94. The two places that we discussed where the phosphate buffer system is important include the ICF and the ____.
    urine
  95. Carbonic acid can break down into carbon dioxide and water in the ____.
    lungs
  96. Most of the extracellular fluid is located in the _________ _____.
    interstitial spaces
  97. When the blood arterial pH becomes too acidic, the acid can damage and change the shape of our proteins (such as our enzymes that regulate our metabolic reactions). The term we use for the change in protein structure is ________.
    denature
  98. Your patient has a brain tumor which is growing. He could possible have a tumor of any of the following cells EXCEPT:

    a. neuron
    b. astrocyte
    c. ependymal
    d. oligdendrocyte
    neuron
  99. Late in her pregnancy, a women has severe pain radiating from her buttocks down to her foot. Which nerve has most likely been affected?

    a. musculocutaneous
    b. radial
    c. obturator
    d. sciatic
    sciatic
  100. A patient is in a boating accident and has severe spinal cord injury. His spinal cord is completely severed above spinal cord segment C2. Which of the following are correct regarding this patient?

    a. the patient will be able to move his arms and legs
    b. the diaphragm will function normally
    c. the patient will not be able to breathe on his own
    the patient will not be able to breathe on his own
  101. A patient has a laceration of a nerve fiber in his right leg. Which of the following cells is responsible for replacing the myelin?

    a. oligodendrocytes
    b. Schwann cells
    c. satellite cells
    d. oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells
    oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells
  102. A has been diagnosed with carpel tunnel syndrome. He has trouble with sensation and movement in his lateral hand especially iin the region of his thumb. Which nerve has most likely been injured?

    a. musculocutaneous
    b. ulnar
    c. obturator
    d. median
    median
  103. A tumor is growing in the lateral gray horns of several segments of a patient's spinal cord. How might this tumor affect the patient?

    a. may have difficulty with regulating cardiac muscle and various glandular secretions.
    b. may not be able to feel somatic sensations form the waist down.
    may not be able to move skeletal muscles in arms
    c. all of the above
    may have difficulty with regulating cardiac muscle and various glandular secretions.
  104. A drug company is attempting to develop a new drug to treat brain cancer. However, they are having difficulty getting the drug into the brain tissue. Which cell is mostly likely blocking passage of the drug from the blood to the brain.

    a. ependymal
    b. satellite
    c. oligdendrocyte
    d. astrocyte
    e. microglia
    astrocyte
  105. The spinal nerves..

    a. allow communication between the eyes and brain
    b. have posterior sensory roots that help connect them to the spinal cord
    c. have anterior root ganglia containing cell bodies of motor neurons
    d. have only motor functions
    e. exit the vertebral column through the transverse foramen
    have posterior sensory roots that help connect them to the spinal cord
  106. How does cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pass from the subarachnoid space to the dural venous sinuses?

    a. through the arachnoid villi
    b. through the median aperature
    c. through the cerebral aqueduct
    d. through the interventricular foramen
    e. none of the above
    through the arachnoid villi
  107. Controls automatic movements and coordinate movement with visual stimuli
    indirect tracts (tectospinal and vestibulospinal)
  108. Pain, temperature
    spinothalamic tracts
  109. precise voluntary skeletal movements
    direct tracts (corticobulbar and corticospinal)
  110. Proprioception, touch
    posterior columns
  111. A patient with AIDS has loss of myelin in her brain tissue. Which of the following cells is responsible for trying to replace the myelin?

    a. Schwann cells
    b. oligodendrocytes
    c. satellite cells
    d. both Schwann cell and oligodendrocytes
    both Schwann cell and oligodendrocytes
  112. Which of the following are true regarding saltatory conduction?

    a. it occurs in myelinated axons

    b. it is faster than continuous conduction

    c. it takes place due to an extremely low concentration of voltage-gated channels at the nodes

    d. occurs in myelinated axons and is faster than continuous conduction
    occurs in myelinated axons and is faster than continuous conduction
  113. What type of neuron can be found in the eye, ear, and nose?

    a. multipolar
    b. bipolar
    c. unipolar
    bipolar
  114. The spinal cord..

    a. ends at L4 in an adult
    b. has thoracic and sacral enlargements
    c. is longer than the vertebral column
    d. is continuous with the medulla oblongata
    e. is tapered into a cone called the conus medullaris at its superior end
    is continuous with the medulla oblongata
  115. Neurons..

    a. can conduct impulses
    b. usually only have one dendrite that conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body
    c. can divide and multiply
    d. all the above
    can conduct impulses
  116. After a motorcycle accident a young man has difficulty flexing one of his arms. Which nerve has most likely been injured?

    a. musculocutaneous
    b. tibial
    c. femoral
    d. obturator
    musculocutaneous
  117. A patient has a metastatic tumor which blocks the median and lateral aperatures. Which ventricles will become swollen and dialated with cerebrospinal fluid?

    a. laterals
    b. third
    c. fourth
    d. all above
    all above
  118. Which branch of spinal nerves serves anterior trunk and limbs; may form plexuses

    a. meningeal branch
    b. anterior rami
    c. perineurium, endoneurium, epineurium
    d. posterior rami
    anterior rami
  119. Connective tissure coverings of spinal nerve..

    a. meningeal branch
    b. anterior rami
    c. perineurium, endoneurium, epineurium
    d. posterior rami
    perineurium, endoneurium, epineurium
  120. branch of spinal nerve serving vertebrae and blood vessels of the spinal cord

    a. meningeal branch
    b. anterior rami
    c. perineurium, endoneurium, epineurium
    d. posterior rami
    meningeal branch
  121. Which of the following is NOT one of the spinal reflexes that we discussed in class?

    a. stretch reflex
    b. tendon reflex
    c. pupillary reflex
    d. flexor reflex
    e. cross extensor reflex
    pupillary reflex
  122. Action potentials..

    a. occur in dendrites and cell bodies
    b. arise when there is hyperpolarization at the trigger zone
    c. do not use voltage-gated channels
    d. are small, varible changes in the resting membrane potential
    e. have two main phases: depolarization and repolarization
    have two main phases: depolarization and repolarization
  123. Name of the phase when K+ flows outside the axon's call membrane.

    a. graded potential
    b. repolarization
    c. action potential
    d. depolarization
    e. threshold
    repolarization
  124. Name the phase when Na+ rushes inside the axon's cell membrane.

    a. graded potential
    b. repolarization
    c. action potential
    d. depolarization
    e. threshold
    depolarization
  125. All or none event; large, rapid ne-way response; observed in axons.

    a. graded potential
    b. repolarization
    c. action potential
    d. depolarization
    e. threshold
    action potential
  126. Neurons which carry information from the CNS to the effector.

    a. motor neurons
    b. central nervous system
    c. afferent neurons
    d. peripheral nervous system
    e. interneurons
    motor neurons
  127. Name of the neurons which have intergrative function; majority of neurons in body

    a. motor neurons
    b. central nervous system
    c. afferent neurons
    d. peripheral nervous system
    e. interneurons
    interneurons
  128. Any part of the nervous system other than the brain and the spinal cord

    a. motor neurons
    b. central nervous system
    c. afferent neurons
    d. peripheral nervous system
    e. interneurons
    peripheral nervous system
  129. Which part of the ANS controls "rest and digest" activities?

    a. sympathetic divison
    b. parasympathetic division
    c. somatic divison
    d. all of the above
    parasympathetic division
  130. The ______ is the largest nerve in the body and arises from L4-S3 of the sacral plexus.
    sciatic
  131. Deficiency of a vitamin called ______ ____ can result in neural tube defects such as spina bifida.
    folic acid
  132. The ability to perceive the position and movement of our body parts in space, even with our eyes closed, is called __________.
    preprioception
  133. To perform a spinal tap (lumbar puncture) a long needle is inserted into the __________ space.
    subarachnoid
  134. The ______ nervous system consists of the brain and the spinal cord.
    central
  135. A _____-gated ion channel opens only when a specific chemical such as a hormone or a neurotransmitter binds to it.
    ligand
  136. The ______ are the connective tissue coverings that surround the spinal cord (and brain).
    meninges
  137. During hyperpolarization the inside of the neuron cell membrane becomes more _______.
    negative
  138. Anterior rami of spinal nerves T2-T12 are called intercostal nerves or ______ nerves.
    thoracic
  139. Based on a functional classification of neurons, _____ neurons carry information from receptors in different parts of the body to the brain and spinal cord.
    sensory
  140. The corpus luteum

    a. produces progesterone
    b. forms after ovulation
    c. produces relaxin and inhibin
    d. all the above
    all the above
  141. A 3 yr old boy spent the day eating sweets. Which of the following occur?

    a. insulin secretion increases
    b. hGH secretion decreases
    c. produces relaxin and inhibin
    d. all the above
    all the above
  142. Ovarian function decreases significantly after menopause. Which of the following could then occur?

    a. heart attack risk increases due to increased blood cholesterol levels.
    b. bone density decreases due to decreased protein synthesis
    c. estrogen levels decrease
    d. all the above
    all the above
  143. In order to synthesize the thyroid hormones, which materials must be available?

    a. iodine
    b. tyrosine
    c. immunoglobulin
    d. both iodine and tyrosine
    both iodine and tyrosine
  144. The anterior pituitary gland..

    a. contains 3 cell types and secretes 5 different hormones
    b. is regulated mostly by positive feedback loops and hormones from the pineal gland
    c. all of the above
    is regulated mostly by positive feedback loops and hormones from the pineal gland
  145. Decreased levels of thyroid hormones would

    a. decrease the basal metabolic rate
    b. decrease heat production
    c. decrease growth of nervous system in children
    d. decrease growth of skeletal system in children
    e. all of the above
    all of the above
  146. Calcitonin

    a. is synthesized by the parathyroid glands
    b. decreases blood Ca2+ levels
    c. increases the activities of osteoclasts
    increases the activities of osteoclasts
  147. The adrenal medulla

    a. is controlled by the pituitary gland
    b. is part of the parasympathetic division of the ANS
    c. contains chromaffin cells that primarily secrete epinephrine
    contains chromaffin cells that primarily secrete epinephrine
  148. Stimulates secretion of progesterone

    a. TSH
    b. LH
    c. hGH
    d. ADH
    e. ACTH
    LH
  149. Stimulates production of cortisol

    a. TSH
    b. LH
    c. hGH
    d. ADH
    e. ACTH
    ACTH
  150. Stimulates secretion of T3 and T4

    a. TSH
    b. LH
    c. hGH
    d. ADH
    e. ACTH
    TSH
  151. Which of the following may help regulate hormone secretion?

    a. hypothalamus
    b. other hormones
    c. feedback loops
    d. all the above
    all the above
  152. Which of the following is NOT part of the male reproductive system?

    A. fimbriae
    B. prostate
    C. epididymis
    D. Cowper's glands
    E. testis
    D. Cowper's glands
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  153. Which of the following are parts of the spermatic cord?

    a. blood and lymph vessels
    b. autonomic nerves
    c. vas deferens
    d. cremaster muscle
    e. all of the above
    e. all of the above
  154. The penis..

    A. consistes of a single dorsal cavernosum and two ventral corpora spongiosa.
    B. contains erectile tissue
    C. is attached to the body wall by the glans penis
    d. all of the above
    B. contains erectile tissue
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  155. Which adrenal cortex layer is correctly matched to the regulatory function of its product?

    A. zona fasciculata: blood sugar level
    B. zona glomerulosa: female libido
    C. zona reticularis: blood Na+ and K+ levels: blood volume and pressure
    d. all of the above
    A. zona fasciculata: blood sugar level
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  156. Example of a paracrine hormone in the immune system; also has autocrine effects:

    A. insulin
    B. nitric oxide
    C. gastrin
    D. erythropoietin
    E. interleukin
    E. interleukin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  157. Example of a circulating hormone; produced by beta cells:

    A. nitric oxide
    B. gastrin
    C. insulin
    D. erythropoietin
    E. interleukin
    C. insulin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  158. Example of a local hormone which causes vasodilation; its effects are enhanced by the active ingredient in viagra:

    A. interleukin
    B. insulin
    C. nitric oxide
    D. gastrin
    E. erythropoietin
    C. nitric oxide
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  159. The epididymis..

    A. is the site where sperm mature and acquire motility
    B. is a question mark shaped organ that lies along the anterior border of a testis
    C. produces testosterone
    d. all the above
    A. is the site where sperm mature and acquire motility
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  160. Surrounds part of the urethra; secretes slightly acidic fluid; often hypertrophies (enlarges) with age:

    A. seminal vesicles
    B. prostate gland
    C. penis
    D. testis
    E. Cowper's gland
    B. prostate gland
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  161. Paired pea-sized glands, secrete alkaline mucus:

    A. seminal vesicles
    B. penis
    C. prostate gland
    D. testis
    E. Cowper's gland
    E. Cowper's gland
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  162. Classified as a supporting structure of the male reproductive system:

    A. penis
    B. seminal vesicles
    C. prostate gland
    D. Cowper's gland
    E. testis
    A. penis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  163. Female external genitals:

    A. vulva
    B. ovary
    C. vagina
    D. uterus
    E. fallopian tube
    A. vulva
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  164. Transport secondary oocyte or fertalized egg to uterus:

    A. fallopian tube
    B. vulva
    C. vagina
    D. ovary
    E. uterus
    A. fallopian tube
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  165. Muscular tube lined by nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium; inferior part of birth canal

    A. ovary
    B. uterus
    C. vagina
    D. vulva
    E. fallopian tube
    C. vagina
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  166. Which of the following is NOT true of lactation?

    A. it includes the synthesis, secretion and ejection of milk
    B. milk production is stimulated by protlactin
    C. lactiferous ducts empty at the areola
    D. milk ejection is stimulated by oxytocin
    E. milk is produced in alveoli
    C. lactiferous ducts empty at the areola
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  167. Which of the following is NOT true of the uterus?

    A. it may serve as part of the pathway for sperm
    B. it is the usual site development fo the fetus during pregnancy
    C. it is the source of menstrual flow
    D. it is the usual site of fertilization
    D. it is the usual site of fertilization
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  168. Which of the following cells is a stem cell?

    A. primary spermatocyte
    B. sperm cell
    C. secondary spermatocyte
    D. spermatid
    E. spermatogonium
    E. spermatogonium
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  169. The testes..

    A. are each surrounded by a capsule called the tunica surroundo.
    B. contain institial cells that maintain a blood-testis barrier
    C. produce sperm in seminiferous tubules
    D. contain Sertoli cells that produce testosterone
    e. none of the above
    C. produce sperm in seminiferous tubules
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  170. Which of the following classes or hormones are water-soluble?

    a. eicosanoids
    b. amines
    c. peptides
    d. proteins
    e. all of the above
    e. all of the above
  171. The endometrium..

    a. is the inner layer of the uterus
    b. has a layer called the stratum functionalis that sloughs off during menstruation
    c. has a layer called the stratum basalis that persists and gives rise to the stratum functionalis
    d. has a rich blood supply
    e. all of the above
    e. all of the above
  172. Which of the following are correct regarding the mechanism of action of water-soluble hormones?

    a. the hormone is the 1st messenger
    b. cAMP is the 2nd messenger
    c. phophodiesterase inactivates cAMP
    d. A and B are correct
    e. All the above
    e. All the above
  173. The mammary glands..

    A. produce milk
    B. are posterior to pectoralis major muscle
    C. A and B are correct
    D. are modified sweat glands
    e. All the above
    C. A and B are correct
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  174. The female reproductive cycle..

    a. includes the ovarian cycle
    b. includes the uterine cycle
    c. includes the hormonal changes that accompany the ovarian and uterine cycles
    d. all of the above
    e. none of the above
    d. all of the above
  175. Which of the following are correct regarding hGH?

    A. it is secreted by cells in the posterior pituitary
    B. it decreases protein synthesis
    C. it stimulates production and release of insulin-like growth factores
    d. none of the above
    C. it stimulates production and release of insulin-like growth factores
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  176. Which one of the following is NOT associated with the mechanism of action used by lipid-soluble hormones?

    A. alteration of gene expression
    B. diffusion through the plasma membrane
    C. activation of adenylate cyclase
    D. binding to a receptor inside the cell
    E. alteration of cellular activity
    C. activation of adenylate cyclase
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  177. Which of the following hormones is correctly matched to its source and function?

    A. melatonin: pituitary gland; promotes sleepiness
    B. insulin: pancreas; controls blood sugar level
    C. thymosin: thyroid gland; regulates metabolism
    d. all of the above
    e. non of the above
    B. insulin: pancreas; controls blood sugar level
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  178. Which of the following is correct?

    A. only females produce prolactin
    B. increased levels of stress may cause increased secretion of cortisol
    C. TSH stimulates calcitonin production
    D. MSH is required for normal thoyroi function in humans
    E. LH inhibits ovulation
    B. increased levels of stress may cause increased secretion of cortisol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  179. The muscular middle layer of the uterus is called the ________.
    myometrium
  180. The pair of pouch like organs posterior to the base of the male urinary bladder that produce an alkalilne fluid containing fructose are called the _____ _____.
    seminal vesicles
  181. The widest and longest part of the fallopian tube is called the _______.
    ampulla
  182. The structure which usually implants in the uterus about 5-6 days after fertilization is called a ________.
    blastocyst
  183. The misture of seminial fluid and sperm are called _____.
    semen
  184. The golf ball size gland inferior to the urinary bladder in males is called the ______.
    prostate
  185. _______ is the main hormone regulating blood Na+, Cl-, and K+ levels.
    aldosterone
  186. The hormone ___ is also known as vasopressin.
    ADH
  187. The thymus gland produces a hormone which helps T cells to mature called _______.
    thymosin
  188. The hormones of the endrocrine system must bind to ________ on (or in) target cells before they can initiate changes in those cells.
    receptors
  189. The loop of Henle

    a. is permeadable to water in the ascending limb
    b. reabsorbs Na+ Cl- in the descending limb
    c. is located only in the renal cortex but not the medulla
    d. none of the above
    d. none of the above
  190. What histological feature is correctly matched to its product?

    A. Paneth cells: intrinsic factor
    B. Brunner's (duondenal) glands: alkaline mucus
    C. G cell: secretion
    D. goblet cells: acid
    B. Brunner's (duondenal) glands: alkaline mucus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  191. After smooth muscle cells of the JGA are less stetched (swriveled") in your severely dehydrated patient, a series of chemical reactions takes place which increases which of the following:

    a. angiostensin
    b. aldosterone
    c. renin
    d. all of the above
    e. none of the above
    d. all of the above
  192. Pancreatic juice includes all of the following EXCEPT:

    A. HCl
    B. amylase
    C. bicarbonate ions
    D. trypsin
    E. lipase
    A. HCl
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  193. You are trying to invent a new medication to decrease acid production in the stomach. Which cells could you potentially target to decrease stomach acid production?

    A. paneth cell
    B. parietal cell
    C. A and B
    D. G cell
    e. all of the above
    C. A and B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  194. The mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract:

    a. is composed of 3 layers: epithelium, lamina propria and the muscularis mucosae
    b. surrounds the lumen
    c. has some protective function
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  195. Nitrogenous wastes include:

    A. urea
    B. creatinine
    C. bilirubin
    d. all of the above
    A. urea
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  196. Bile

    A. contains chlosterol, bile sale, and bilirubin
    B. is produced by the gallbladder
    C. has an acidic pH
    d. all of the above
    A. contains chlosterol, bile sale, and bilirubin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  197. Micturition, which is also called urination or voiding,

    a. is a spinal reflex involving spinal cord segmenst S2 & S3
    b. involves contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the urethral sphincter
    c. involves parasympathetic fibers
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  198. The cephalic stage of digestion

    A. prepares the mouth and stomach for the arrival of food
    B. begins when food enters the stomach
    C. is regulated primarily by CCK
    d. all of the above
    e. none of the above
    A. prepares the mouth and stomach for the arrival of food
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  199. CCK (cholecystokinin)

    A. is secreted by cells in the large intestine
    B. increases gastric muscle contraction
    C. causes relaxation of the gallbladder wall
    D. stimulates the release of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes
    e. none of the above
    D. stimulates the release of pancreatic juice rich in digestive enzymes
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  200. The intestinal phase of digestion..

    A. begins when someone thinks about, sees, smell, initially tastes food
    B. begins when chemoreceptors and stretch receptors detect food in the duodenum
    C. is an immediate response to stomach digestion
    d. none of the above
    B. begins when chemoreceptors and stretch receptors detect food in the duodenum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  201. The filtration membrane consists of

    a. endothelial pores of the glomerus
    b. the basal lamina
    c. slit membranes
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  202. Which of the following is NOT absorbed by the gastric epithelium?

    A. some ions
    B. alcohol
    C. fats
    D. water
    E. asprin
    C. fats
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  203. A patient with long term severe renal failure will likely develop which of the following?

    a. anemia
    b. decreased bone mass
    c. decreased blood creatinine levels
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  204. Peritoneum

    A. lamina propria
    B. lumen
    C. serosa
    D. muscularis
    C. serosa
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  205. Smooth or skeletal muscle depending on location

    A. lumen
    B. serosa
    C. lamina propria
    D. muscularis
    D. muscularis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  206. Loose connective tissue; containing MALT

    A. lumen
    B. muscularis
    C. serosa
    D. lamina propria
    D. lamina propria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  207. The gallbladder

    A. wall contains skeletal muscle
    B. drains directly into the left hapatic duct
    C. lies on the superior surface of the liver
    D. concentrates and stores bile
    D. concentrates and stores bile
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  208. Which of the following is NOT a function of the stomach?

    A. receives the bolus from the esphagus
    B. serves as the primary absorption site for most nutrients
    C. performs both mechanical and chemical digestice processes
    D. produces HCL, pepsinogen and gastric lipase
    E. delivers chyme to the duodenum
    B. serves as the primary absorption site for most nutrients
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  209. The collecting ducts

    a. contain principal cells
    b. contain intercalated cells
    c. helps to regulate blood H+ concentration
    d. all of the above
    d. all of the above
  210. Order in which chyme and ultimately feces pass through:
    • 1. ileocecal valve
    • 2. cecum
    • 3. ascending colon
    • 4. transverse colon
    • 5. descending colon
    • 6. sigmoid colon
    • 7. rectum
    • 8. anus
  211. The urinary bladder

    A. wall contains the detrusor muscle, which consists of smooth muscle
    B. in males is directly posterior to the rectum
    C. in females is posterior to the vagina and superior to the uterus
    d. all of the above
    e. none of the above
    A. wall contains the detrusor muscle, which consists of smooth muscle
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  212. Which of the following are true regarding the pancreas?

    A. its head is close to the "c-shaped" curve in the duodenum
    B. it is composed mostly of endocrine tissue.
    C. it passes pancreatic juice to the duodenum through the cystic duct
    d. all of the above
    A. its head is close to the "c-shaped" curve in the duodenum
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  213. Each of the following are functions of the kidneys EXCEPT:

    A. regulation of blood pressure and blood volume
    B. regulation of blood osmolarity
    C. production of calcitriol
    D. production of chlesterol
    E. production of erythropoietin
    D. production of chlesterol
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)

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