World History II
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Facist- permanent dictatorship, look to the glorious past, limited private ownership, right winged, extreme nationalists, racist, gave leaders titlesCommunist- temporary dictatorship, look to the future, no private ownership, left winged, internationalists, no deviation
Difference between Facist and Communist Totalitarianism
total control/power in the hands of one. The individual is always worth less than the state.
1st communist totalitarianist country
ran the government of Russia w/ controlled economy. people learned that they would never move up with this system.
NEP (New Economic Policy)
Incentive placed in Russia to work harder. If you made extra, you could keep it (agriculture), if you exceded quota in factory, you get bonus.
Crafty. fought for Lenin's job. born in cold north. left when of age. heard Lenin speak and wanted to be part of movement. made himself important by doing the dirty work.
smart. fought for Lenin's job. pushed out of the Politburo. exiled and then killed in Mexico in '29
5 Year Plans
Stalin set this up to help industry.
small group of government just under the leader
Russia always had to import food. only prosperous area was the Ukrane.
organized collective farms. collect land together and ppl and crops would be assigned.
cleansing in Russia of 'old enemies'
chief deputy killed by payed assassin
1. old Bolsheviks
2. military leaders
3. assassin of Kirov
Order of Russian Purges
ppl had jobs & some free medical care
Positives of Stalin rule
Problems in post WWI Italy
- 1. angry b/c of outcome of war
- 2. high poverty
- 3. Fiume
- 4. Italian International Facist Party
port city in Yugoslavia that Orlando wanted. Had much trade to and from Russia
Italian International Facist Party
Mussolini organization of unemployed veterans
Victor Emmanuel III
ruler of Italy b/f Mussolini
Mussolini told VEIII that he would march into Rome and that VEIII had better appoint him Primere, VEIII did it and gave him 1 yr dictatorship
Mussolini's Path to Power
violent Facist group who told Mussolini to 'get tough'
socialist who was kidnapped from office and killed by Black Shirts
no free press
Rome- Berlin Axis
the area w/ which the whole of Europe would revolve around
Japan joined the area w/ which the whole of Europe would revolve around
facist ruler of Spain. not as cruel as Hitler or Mussolini. when he stepped down, he handed Spain back to the royal family
German communists who thought they could take over Germany
elected president of the Weimar Republic in Germany
ppl who lost everything
disillusioned college students
group created by Hitler
1. dismissed legislatuer and called for new elections (private army enforced votes)
2. burned Reichstag Building (legislature building)
3. had legislature pass the Enabeling Acts (gave him dictator powers for 4 years)
4. Hindenberg died, appointed himself President and Chancelor under the Enabling Act
Hitler as Chancelor
Hitler's Top Officials
- 1. Goering
- 2. Himmler
- 3. Goebbels
- 4. Streicher
- 5. Von Ribbontrop
founded the Gestapo. Later headed the Luftwaffe (Germ. Air Force)
took over Gestapo after Goering left. Also headed SS (Hitler's private bodyguards)
propoganda minister. Job was to make ppl believe Hitler
'self-sufficient'. Hitler wanted Germ. to be self-sufficient. this is when they came up w/ rayon fabric
private army. helped him get private audiences and majority in legisature. regular army jealous of them.
b/c of the regular army's jealousy of the S.A., Hitler had German army scatter and kill the S.A.
Hitler wanted to create blonde hair/ blue eyed Aryan race.
1. putting men to work building roads and cheap homes
2. ordered company to build cheap cars (VW)
3. created 'strength through joy' program. gave workers three 4 day vacations @ government resorts. did this to help create 'family time'
Hitler's actions to please people
Nuremberg Laws of 1935
said the Jews were the greatest criminals of all time and they should be prosecuted
Hitler tried to get Jews to leave Germany by doing this
15 years of France mining was over. they decided to rejoin Germany
can now be fortified. France kicked out
union w/ Austria
country by Czechoslovakia that Hitler took. Very large amount of chemicals for warfare
Hitler said he was going to take this and Poland. GB and France said if he did, they would declare war. marched in on 9-1-39
10 year non agression pact
for 10 years Germany and Russia would not invade each other
tanks and heavily armed war goods
Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithouania
Taken by Hitler w/ in 4 weeks before war officially started
no activity from after the 4 weeks of taking Poland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania to the spring of '40.
france was expecting a war like WWI, creating trenches to kill marching Germans, but the Germans rolled over them, killing many
Germany rolled through Holland, Belgium, and France. Brit army kept having to retreat, til they got to _______. They couldn't back up any more from there
(South & East France) appointed Petain to run it. he became a traitor. Hitler said it would still be free.
(North) Occupied. took it b/c it would be right by GB.
(not geographical) underground movement. headquarterer in GB by Charles De Gaulle.
organizor of 'Free France' movement in GB
daily bombing of GB by Germ.
Battle of Britain
Hitler's 1st big loss
area Hitler told Mussolini to take while he was bombing GB.
'desert fox'. great Germ. military leader of African Campaign
Rommel took all of N Africa and Allimaine. needed supplies, didn't get them, thus lost all of N Africa
aka Operation Red Beard. supposed to be quick move to take Russia but his big tanks didn't take well to Russian dirt roads
Japan was at war with whom since 1937?
Japan quickly took this location after Pearl Harbor
policy in pacific to focus on islands w/ immediate need
killing of Jews in concentration camps. directed by Himmler
Hitler ordered for this to be done while he was away in Moscow. Himmler.
Russian city Hitler spent 17 months trying to take
Russia took control of Germany here
Anzio and Solarno
2 beachlands US took
FDR and Stalin, but not Churchill, wanted 2nd front in ______.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Supreme allied commander
D-day's code name
Battle of the Bulge
last big offensive battle in the west
Battle of Coral Sea
saved Australia from Japan
saved Hawaii from Japan
1st offensive action US took in Pacific
1st time kamakazi planes used in large #s
destroyed large portion of Japan's navy
US perfected the atom bomb
Gen. Douglass McArthur
supreme allied commander in Pacific
Date of 1st A-bomb dropped
place 1st A-bomb dropped
decisions made w/o Churchill or FDR
planned attack on Ger, planned 2nd front
- 1. russia enter war in exten. cirr.
- 2. divided Germany into occ. zones
- 3. polish border decided
- 4. govt's set up according to will of ppl
- 5. lais foundation for UN
- 6. laid foundation for Cold War
- 1.Truman (new President)
- 2.Atlee (grom GB
- 3.disarm Germ. & Japan
- 4. leaders tried as war criminals
- 5. German resources to repair damages
3.Austria could never join w/ Germany
6.Austria must remain neutral
smaller countries on Axis side lost:
2.cash and carry
3 positions of the US prior to entering the war
country divided into 4 sections
city divided into 4 sections. partially ran by Russia
Goering killed himself b/f sentencing. 10 ppl hung
had occupation army. trials for war. some hung. Primere Tojo tried and hung (military and political figure)
Japanese emperor forced to tell country he wasn't direct decendent of Sun god
Russian occupied E. Europe behind ________
war of words instead of fighting
'contain communism where it exhists, but allow no spread'
economic aid to rebuild democracies in Europe
created to have a response ready in case of another blockaid
same as NATO, but for communism
South East Asia Treaty Organization
only free part of China
Mao Ze Dong
communist leader in China
Adenaur and Ludwig Erhard
President of Germany and economic minister who were the 2 main rebuilders of Germany
1. abolished price controls
2. abolished rationing
3. full employment
4. strong currency
5. social reform
6. health care
what did Adenaur and Ludwig Erhard accomplish in post WWII Germany?
'all of europe should produce as one to make Europe economically dependant on each other' so they couldn't afford to go to war
Treaty of Rome
created European economic community, common market
colonies given independence, many had hard times b/c they were just released w/ no experience
'new colonialism'. didn't technically own the colonies any more, but still ran things. left bad taste in colonies mouth
Stalin woned all of E. Europe except _______
Yugoslavia communist ruler
took over after Stalin, made major changes, hated Stalin, said ppl shouldn't be killed off by leader, more should be heard than just leader
1. not a lot of murder
2. not a lot of torture
3. wouldn't make alliances w/ dictators
4. small change in standard of living
5. let writers be freer to write w/o fear of government
6. peaceful, coexistence foreign policy
Eisenhower and Khrushchev had 1st meeting that misled some people
strong man in Cuba, cruel dictator
1. got rid of Batista
2. made Cuba communist
3. got tax $ from Havana and closed it down
4. Cubans tried to leave country and go to south Fla.
Bay of Pigs
- 1. Cubans wanted to take over Cuba w/ US help, but it was a disaster
- 2. Kennedy enemy of Castro
- 3. Missle Crisis: told Castro to get missiles out of Cuba so he did
replaced Khrus, more like Stalin
1. had right to intervene when needed anywhere
2. gov't was harsh
3. organized opposition was impossible
campaigned against alcohol in Russia
Gorbachev's new openness
US president in the 50's
- 1. 'time to move' president
- 2. inherited Nam's probs
- 3. increased $, troops, advisors
- 4. assassinated
- 1. after Kennedy
- 2. short temper, harsh
- 3. obsessed w/ Nam
- 4. did good things at home
- -Civil Rights Bill
- -Voting Rights Act
- -War on Poverty
Voting Rights Act
(LBJ) did away w/ poll tax
War on Poverty
(LBJ) 1st president to be concerned w/ poverty
Vietnam's New Year, costly b/c we weren't paying attention
US president that pulled US out of war, US realized containment wasn't necessary
US president that increased spending
- 1. 35 nations met in Finland
- 2. said borders wouldn't be changed by force
- 3. said countries would concentrate on human rights
ignored Helsinki Conference and moved into Afganistan
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