sociology final exam

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sociology final exam
2010-12-15 00:14:30
sociology final exam

sociology final exam
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  1. three major perspectives:

    Which paradigms are at the macro-level?
    structural functionalism and social conflict
  2. which paradigm has a conservative viewpoint?
    structural functional
  3. which paradigm has a liberal viewpoint?
    symbolic interaction
  4. which paradigm has a radical viewpoint?
    social conflict
  5. which paradigm is at the micro-level oriented?
    symbolic interaction
  6. key theorists of this paradigm are:

    Comte, Durkheim, Spencer, Merton, Parsons, Bales, etc
    structural functional
  7. this paradigm is based on the assumption that society is the product of the everyday interaction of individuals. society is a mosaic of subjective meanings and responses.
  8. which paradigm says: Some parts are better then a "whole"?
    social functional
  9. what type of level of orientation views life from the "larger picture" concept of things. they can be extreme opposites philosophically (conservative vs. radical). when they see the larger view they don't see the concept of things individually, what's really going on.
  10. which paradigm is based on the assumption that society is a complex system of interrelated parts ,working together to promote stability
  11. which paradigm is based on the assumption that society is a complex system characterized by inequality/competition conflict. Inevitably resulting in change.
    social conflict
  12. this paradigm's prospective helps to convey more of how individuals actually experience society.
    symbolic interaction
  13. this paradigm asks questions such as:

    how is society divided?
    what are the major patterns of social inequality? how do some categories of people try to protect their privileges?
    how do other categories of people challenge the status quo?
    social conflict
  14. which paradigm asks:

    how is society experienced?
    how do human beings interact to create, maintain, and change social patterns?
    how do individuals try to shape the reality that others perceive?
    how does individual behavior change from one situation to another?
    symbolic interaction
  15. which paradigm asks:

    how is society integrated?
    how are these parts interrelated?
    what are the consequences of each part for overall operation of society?
    structural functionalism
  16. which paradigm believes that:
    humans define themselves thru social interaction; that the sum of human interaction defines society
    symbolic interaction
  17. which paradigm says that society is a system of interrelated parts that focuses on stability bc of widespread agreement on what is morally desirable; each part has a particular function in society as a whole.
    structural functionalism
  18. which paradigm says that society is a system characterized by social inequality, conflict and division; each part of society benefits some categories of people more than others. social inequality leads to conflict which, in turn, leads to social change
    social conflict
  19. which paradigm is a framework for building theory based on the assumption that society is a complex system of interrelated and interdependent parts working together to promote stability
    structural functional
  20. key words of this paradigm are:

    social integration
    collective conscience
    mechanical/organic solidarity
    structural functional
  21. which paradigm is a framework for building theory based on the assumption that society is characterized by inequality and conflict that generates change
    social conflict
  22. some key words for this paradigm are:

    social conflict
  23. key theorists of this paradigm are:

    Marx, DuBois, and C. Wright Mills
    social conflict
  24. which paradigm is a theoretical framework based on the assumption that society is the product of the everyday interactions of individuals. this paradigm or perspective helps to convey more of how individuals actually experience society
    symbolic interaction
  25. key theorists of this paradigm:

    Weber, Mead, Goffman, Sutherland, Homans, Blau, Penton, Etc
    symbolic interaction
  26. which sociological perspective believes that personal development and behaviorism is learned thru our culture
  27. which perspective concerns itself with what binds individuals together in society
    structural functionalism
  28. which paradigm believes that deviant behavior is the result of inadequate socialization; due to a breakdown in the socializing institutions of society, such as the family, schools, and religious institutions.
    or because the individual was raised in a deviant subculture.
    or it might lie in a physical abnormality.
    in cases where rehabilitation is not possible the individual must be isolated from the rest of society.
    structural functional
  29. this position advocates a system blame approach. for this paradigm, deviant behavior is only the symptom of the disease. the problem of crime, teen pregnancy, drug addiction, embezzlement, school dropouts and others are rooted deep within the institutions and normative structures of society.
    this paradigm believes that if a more equitable distribution of wealth and power was attained, then and only then will deviance be eliminated
    social conflict
  30. for this paradigm:
    stratification between minorities and whites is simply a matter of assimilation. they anchor their argument by saying that whites came over here to make a life for themselves by adopting the values of the dominant society. they also had to worked at undesirable jobs, which have always existed and will, quite naturally be performed by the least fortunate.
    so what this perspective is saying is that if we assimilate to the dominant culture then we, too, can move up in the social ladder.
    structural functional
  31. this paradigm suggests that it is not so much a matter of assimilation, but rather, one of power and subordination. whites have positions of power and seek to maintain their positions by subordinating members of racial groups. the subordinated groups are denied access to quality education, housing, job advancement and health care, all of which create a perpetuating cycle of poverty.
    social conflict
  32. in this paradigm:
    traditional gender roles are natural, inevitable and necessary. for this paradigm, rapid change is neither necessarily nor eagerly desired, for them the natural order of things results from slow and gradual change; or else it would put a strain on society.
    from this point of view, society would be a better place in which to live and work if these systems remained stable and people were integrated into the dominant ideology
    structural functional
  33. this theory states that:
    gender stratification results from the private monopoly of the ownership of the means of production men not only have a monopoly over property and distribution of goods and services, but also gain power over women thru marriage.
    from this perspective, the gendered division of labor within families and in the workplace results from male control and dominance over women and valued resources.
    social conflict
  34. this theory views:
    the family as an extremely important element of society bc it fills some of society's most basic needs or functions. those who use this theoretical perspective also consider any deviation from this functionally determined structure to be dysfunctional or harmful to society.
    5 functions that these theorists say as to why families serve in society:
    1. procreation or childbearing
    2. socialization of children
    3. the regulation of sexual behavior
    4. provides for the material or economic needs of its members
    5. provides emotional support
    structural functional
  35. these theorists:
    brought the issue of power and its unequal distribution in society into the picture.
    this theory allows us to understand the connection between families and their relationship to the ownership of the means of production.
    social conflict
  36. this paradigm says that:
    the function of health care is to promote and maintain the health of the members of society. the promotion and maintenance of health is not, however, primarily for the benefit of the individual, altho that is a latent function of health care institution. rather, health is promoted and maintained bc society needs healthy individuals to perform necessary societal functions within other social institutions.
    structural functional
  37. this paradigm:
    says that health care is a right and not a privilege. they believe that health care institutions divide doctors and patients into two classes-those who control the dispensation of medicine and those who receive it; giving doctors power. power is the ability to do as one wants even against the resistance of others.
    social conflict
  38. for this perspective:
    the key to understanding the behavior of individuals in specific social situations is to perceive how the individual interprets language and symbols
    symbolic interaction
  39. this perspective believes that:
    the creation of the health care system was a process that was negotiated between society and the providers of health care. they defined and created the symbolism of "practicing medicine" and "physicians".
    symbolic interaction
  40. labeling is part of which perspective
    Symbolic interaction
  41. what is social structure?
    relative stable social patters: family, religion, education, economics, government
  42. what are cultural universals?
    they exist in every known society, but not necessarily manifested in the same way
  43. what are social functions?
    consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society. (What would the consequences for the operation of society if there was no institution of family?)
  44. what are manifest functions?
    intended and recognized consequences for the operation of society (i.e. family and transportation)
  45. what are latent functions?
    unintended and unrecognized consequences for the operation of society (the good stuff)

    sometimes there's a fine line between latent and dysfunction: latent = cars...dysfunction = pollution and dependency on gas, etc.
  46. what is social dysfunction?
    undesirable consequences for the operation of society
  47. ___ is:

    -all the shared knowledge values, rules of behavior, and the objects that make up people's way of life.
    -everything that is a part of a people's way of life
    -human survival depends on what we learn thru our culture
  48. ___ is:
    -a self contained group of humans who share a common territory and have organized themselves for the purpose of survival and perpetuations of a certain way of life.
    -have common culture and language
    -largest form of human group
    -major components are language and symbols
    -social solidarity unite society
  49. ___ is the disorientation one feels when exposed to an unfamiliar environment or way of life
    culture shock
  50. is culture uniquely human? why or why not?
    • yes. brain size, opposable thumbs, and language
    • - brain size: may be smaller than some animals yet, we know a lot; think in logic and reason, we can move and adapt
    • - opposable thumbs: allows us to do a lot with our hands, some animals dont have this
  51. name the building blocks to culture
    • -symbols
    • -values
    • -language
    • -norms
    • -material culture
    • -non material culture
  52. differentiate between the tangible (physical) and non-tangible (non physical) objects of a culture.
    • tangible artifacts: clothes, cars, and etc are material objects. often times you can tell a person's culture thru their tangible artifacts
    • Ex: americans value cars, many times even more than they value their home

    • non-tangible artifacts: symbols, church, and etc.
    • they hold a meaning. it could also be used to tell a person's culture; what religion they believe in or what certain objects signify to them
  53. ___ is anything that invokes within a human being a response; anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by people who share a culture
  54. according to class discussion, what were the reasons why language is the most important building block to culture?
    (Penton feels this is most important) language is a system of symbols that we use to communicate with one another

    it is the most important building block bc of cultural transmission (one generation passes culture to the next)
  55. ____ means using other words to express another word you don't want to say directly
  56. what are some things that words or phrases an tell us about our language?
    some words in a certain language could derive from a different language due to some things that may have happened in the past (history)

    also, some cultures may find it appropriate to say something, but in a different culture it may be rude or absurd
  57. Linguistic Anthropologists, David ___ and Edward ____ developed a Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis, aka ______ Hypothesis, which states what?
    David Whorf and Edward Sapir

    • Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
    • thru language, cultures attach certain meanings to different objects and events. once defined, it is difficult to see the object or even in any way other than how it has been defined. Thus, the same object may have totally different meanings to people from different cultures bc of the way it is defined in their language.
    • EX: the way the US view the colors black and white. black is generally associated with something dark and evil and white with good. the perceptions and associations related to these colors are so powerful that they can influence actions
  58. According to the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, we see and know the world only in terms of our ___?

    language acts as a mental filter, shaping the way we see the world. people perceive the world only in terms of the symbols contained in their language.
  59. what is the position of most social scientists and linguistic anthropologists today regarding the Sapir-Whorf (or Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis) hypothesis?
    • they dont accept the hypothesis bc the same word in a different language means the same thing.
    • chair in Spanish MEANS chair, regardless of how it is said.
  60. what are culturally defined standards of desirability, goodness, and beauty, which serves as broad guidelines for social living?
  61. the dominant values of a culture are sometimes ____ and _____
    inconsistant and contradictory
  62. Name at least three of the values that sociologist Robin Williams (1970) identified as "core American values"
    • 1. freedom
    • 2. equal opportunity
    • 3. achievement and success
    • 4. democracy and free enterprise
    • 5. material comfort
    • 6. progress
    • 7. activity and work
    • 8. practicality
    • 9 science
    • 10 racism and group superiority
  63. despite strong notions about individualism and freedom, most people in the US still evaluate individuals according to ___, ___, ___ and ____ (macionis)
    • gender
    • race
    • ethnicity
    • social class
  64. the notion that americans say we believe in monogamous marriage represents which aspect of culture? real or idea?

    ideal culture is what we believe
  65. within all cultures there is a tendency for a gap to develop between what we value and what we practice. what is the term for what we practice?
    real culture

    as opposed to ideal
  66. rules by which society guides the behavior of its members is called __?
  67. ____ are those norms and rules regarding behaviors that we should avoid.

    ____ are those norms and rules that regulate behavior that is acceptable to society.
    proscriptive - what we should not do

    prescriptive - what we should do
  68. ___ are strongly held beliefs about acceptable behavior. violations are not tolerated
  69. ___ are codified norms or rules of behavior that have been legally sanctioned by government
    driving while under the influence of alcohol
    copyright infringement
  70. ___ are strongly enforced by the state but they differ in that they delve into the area of the forbidden.
    animal torture
    desecration of a place of worship
  71. ____ are norms that constitute the customary patterns of our lives. members of society thru both verbal and nonverbal reprimands discourage them.
    picking your nose in public
    talking in the theater while the movie is playing
    wearing a tank top to church
    treating your parents with disrespect
  72. ___ is a mean by which members of society often encourage conformity
    - direct and indirect pressure
    - positive and negative sanctions
    social control
  73. in social control-
    ____ brings rewards and praises while
    ____ can bring out pain; guilt (judging ourselves) and shame (public disapproval)
    • conformity
    • nonconformity
  74. ___ means the differences found among cultures
    cultural diversity
  75. _____ is the segment of a population that can be distinguished from the dominant society
  76. ___ is the segment of society who challange the values, norms and traditions of the dominant society, sometimes offering alternative ideas and solutions to problems of living
  77. ___ is the belief that one's culture and ways of life are superior to that of other cultures - we judge them based on OUR values and norms
  78. ____ is the practice of evaluating (judging) another culture by THEIR standards
    cultural relativity
  79. which is best represented by the adage "when in Rome, do as the Romans do"?

    a. ethnocentrism
    b. cultural relativity
    b. cultural relativity
  80. ____ are social structures and events that seem to be shared across the cultures
    cultural universals
  81. ____ defines when there are differences between and within cultures
    cultural diversity
  82. which perspective theorists are interested in the bonds uniting society, or what allows it to work as a cohesive and harmonious unit
    structural functional
  83. which perspective are the theorists concerned with how culture is formed and for whose benefit. from this perspective, the core values of the US are all an outgrowth of our economic system of capitalism. inherent within this value system is a tendency to blame victims for their failures.
    social conflict
  84. ____ is a process by which we learn to fit into society and thereby achieve harmony.

    as defined in the powerpoint: the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn patterns of their culture
  85. some agents of socialization are?
    • family **most important
    • identity
    • birthright
    • culture
    • values
    • religion
    • norms
  86. ____ affects who we become and who we wish we could have become (Penton)
  87. Could a person's personality develop without social interaction?
    no. because without social interaction they wouldn't even be familiar with "speaking" at all or doing normal human things.

    six months of complete isolation was enough to disturb development when Harlow experiments on nonhuman primates
  88. according to freud, if childhood conflicts are not resolved, ____ ____ may develop
    personality disorders
  89. media is the most ____, especially in younger children
  90. ____ children are children raised in the wild

    _____ children are locked away and denied access to other humans

  91. Charles Horton ___ developed which theory that is about how we develop an image of ourselves based upon input from others

    looking glass self theory
  92. how does socialization affect children and their behavior?
    • if unsocialized then they will have a harder time adjusting and flowing with the rest of the human race.
    • or, if they have family that helps them develop a positive-self image and a positive set of beliefs then they have a better chance at having a positive attitude and outlook on life and are acceptable in society.
    • on the negative side, under bad family conditions the exact opposite is true
  93. from a sociological perspective, explain how deviance is viewed in particular settings
    deviance is situational or relative to particular settings

    ** what is deviant to one person may not be to another
  94. from this perspective, "deviance resides in the very nature of the act itself"
    therefore, it is wrong at all times - past, present, and future - and in every situation
    absolutist perspective
  95. this perspective says that what is deviant in one place, at one particular time, may not be deviant in another place and time
    i.e. killing during a war or in self-defense is not considered deviant, but necessary
    normative perspective
  96. this perspective holds that something is not deviant until it is defined as deviant by society and sanctions are sent in place.

    in the past, truancy was considered to be deviant behavior and truant officers were on the streets everyday hunting down the students who skipped school.
    reactive perspective
  97. which blame theory falls into the functionalist perspective supporting the premise that the normative social belief systems of society are functionally correct and contribute to a smooth and harmonious society?

    the problem lies in the inability of individuals or groups to either understand or follow what is acceptable
  98. which blame falls into the social conflict theory that views deviant behavior is either a manifestation of inequality, or the attempts of the powerful to force their views of right and wrong on those with different views who are powerless to resist.

    deviance, then, is the symptom and not the disease
    system blame
  99. this theory believes that sometimes genetics are responsible for "deviant" behavior.
    for example. many learning disabilities are not the result of laziness, rebellion or retardation
    also, some individuals may possess a genetic susceptibility toward alcoholism, drug addiction and eating disorders because of their prenatal state
    biological theories
  100. this theory says that deviant behavior is rooted in personality disorders.
    they say that deviant behavior results from a number of interpersonal conflicts with intimates, such as parents, siblings and peers.
    parents who are too strict, too lenient, not loving enough, etc. produce offspring with a tendency for pathological behavior
    psychological theories
  101. this theory, developed by Edwin Sutherland, states that "deviant behavior is learned in interaction with other people, for the most part within intimate primary groups such as families and peer groups."
    differential association theory

    • "you hang around that crowd and you're going to be just like them!"
    • "birds of a feather flock together"
  102. this theory, by merton, assumes that all americans value achievement leading to material success and that they conform to the societal norms of education, employment, and investing for the future, to reach their goal of economic independence.

    the gap between "what ought to be" and "what is" leaves a person "____"
    opportunity structure theory aka the Strain Theory

  103. ___ means reinterpreting someone's past
    retrospective labeling
  104. what type of blame is the labeling theory? - which suggests that people are more likely to become deviant when social groups label them as such
    system blame
  105. this system blame theory (also social conflict) states that norms of behavior are usually defined and enforced by the influential or powerful members of a group (or society) in order to maintain their own capitalist ideology.
    political economy
  106. structural functionalist focus on the individual, and are very much aligned with which blame theory?
    individual blame
  107. what is the difference between race and ethnicity?
    • race, sociologically, is defined as belonging to a group of people who others believe to be physically and genetically unique. (black, white, asian, native american)
    • ethnicity is attributed to groups of people who share a common cultural heritage such as language, geographical origins, religion, values, food and dress.
    • (so to me race is part of ethnicity--ethnicity is broader and includes more groups...such as being a jew is an ethnicity)
  108. ____ describes a particular type of prejudice and discrimination where individuals believe that people are divided into distinct groups based on heredity.
  109. two types of racism:

    ___ = stoning of a home of an african american family who has moved into an all-white neighborhood

    ____ = the use of IQ or standardized testing in the selection of job applicants.
    individual racism

    institutional racism
  110. he says to define bigotry but we never defined it in class so i looked it up online. click for definition
    • 1.stubborn and complete intolerance of any creed, belief, oropinion that differs from one's own. belief or opinion that differs from one's own
    • 2. the actions, beliefs, prejudices, etc. of a bigot

    synonyms - narrow-mindedness, bias, discrimination
  111. ___ is unfounded and biased attitudes held by one group or individual about another group or individual
  112. ___ is the act of denying certain groups or individuals rights and privileges afforded to others bc of their group membership

    so prejudice is just the attitudes while discrimination is acting on the prejudice
  113. ___ occurs when the immigrating culture adopts some elements (food, clothing, music, language) from the groups of the dominant culture

    book definition-absorption into the dominant culture of recent immigrants

    test question definition (that i got wrong) - forsaking one's own cultural tradition
  114. ____ hypothesis is the interactionist perspective which states that interracial contact between people of equal status in cooperative circumstances will reduce prejudice

    • also defined - a situation where people may be forced to work together on a specific job or permanent job, where there is NO competition for promotion, job security, or supervisor/subordinate competition
    • his favorite example: living conditions in military basic training and technical schools
  115. this is one definition of ___:
    behavior or characteristics that violate important social normals and consequently result in societal sanctions
  116. this sociologist proposed that deviance is a norm
  117. official definition of _____ - ((according to our past test)) how much the poor spend on food
  118. ___ is acceptance into the dominant culture ((according to another missed test question from the past test))
  119. ___ is a negative trait or traits that are generalized to all members of a particular group
  120. this perspective believes that institutional racism benefits society (depending on which side of the fence you're on). institutional racism is deeply embedded in the customs and operational practices of society and prevents ethnic minorities from moving into economic and social mainstream
    structural functional
  121. for structural functionalist, stratification between minorities is simply a matter of ___; and not all members of ethnic minorities are economically disadvantaged
  122. social conflict theorists agree with functionalists in so far as the undesirable jobs are a necessary reality of society.and that the less educated and unskilled with perform these jobs.

    however, they suggest the key is ____ and ____
    power and subordination. dominance of one group over others. according to this premise, ethnic minorities were never meant to assimulate
  123. racial grouping - is it related to biological or sociological origins
    • in the powerpoints he talks about white privilege (the fact that whites, by virture of their racial identity, receive special consideration in almost all facets of social life)
    • so from that point of view its biological

    • there's also a slide that says dominant racial group white america
    • says the racial group that has within its power the ability to exploit and control other groups. even in the face of resistance ..
    • i would say it depends on which racial group is dominant but apparently its white people since it says white america in its title...
    • again biological..
  124. distinguish between sex and gender
    sex is the BIOLOGICAL distinction of being male or female that develops before birth

    gender can be defined as the socially constructed attitudes, meanings, beliefs, and behaviors associated with the sex differences of being born male or female, and learned thru the process of socialization
  125. what are the differences between gender roles and gender socialization
    gender roles - are learned and reinforced thru associated behaviors and attitudes with the help of the socializing agents such as the family, schools, peers, the media, politics, and religions

    gender defined in the book (because penton made that definition apparently) ...if so then gender then is based on how society bases its perception of male and female qualities and communicated thru dominant ideology (language)
  126. _____ found that among the Tchambuli tribal women in the New Guinea, dominant traits were business shrewdness, logic, common sense and the major economic role
    margaret mead

    she also noted the males were interested in aesthetics and included gossiping, decorating, and adorning themselves in makeup and jewelry. she was able to show that the whole concept of cultural behaviors, emotions, and interested are patterned by environmental conditions
  127. educational psychologist Debra Tanner confirmed Carol Gilligan's conclusions that gender roles for both males and females are _____ during early childhood and reinforced thru SOCIALIZATION agents
  128. how do sex roles differ in Western cultures from other more primitive tribes?
    • in most western industrialized societies the laws, ordinances, and sanctions protecting these privileges are governed by the white Anglo-Saxon protestant males; this group made, enforced and continued to produce the laws. ordinances, and sanctions that keep them in their positions of power and wealth, usually at the expense of others in society.
    • other non-industrialized, third world, and asian nations are not exempt from patriarchal dominance.
  129. under what category are these:
    sex reassignment
  130. Fact card:
    according to Parsons, gender forms a complimentary set of roles that link males and females together into family units that fulfill the various functions necessary for the operation of society, with women being largely responsible for the caring and nurturing of children and overals management of the household, while men connect the family to the larger society thru their participation in the workforce.
    parson's (1942) argues that this division of labor contributes to the socialization process by teaching young boys and girls appropriate gender identity and gender related skills that will be needed later in adult life (page 248 in book)
  131. Fact sheet:
    parsons' view that society promotes gender roles thru various schemes has recently come under critical evaluation. for example, he excludes the fact that poor women and single mothers, thru necessity, have always worked outside of the home and increasing numbers of wives successfully juggle the dual status of motherhood and career
    parson also fails to include the numbers of feminists who defy the traditional gender roles orchestrated by a male dominated society and pursue nontraditional life-styles and careers
  132. fact card:
    talcott parsons (1902-1979)
    is regarded as one of the most influential contemporary structural functionalists. he perceived the family as being the most important institution required for the survival of society. for parsons, the husband performed the instrumental role of providing for the physical and economic needs, while the wife's main duty was that of taking the expressive role of taking care of the home and family
    page 16
  133. ____ is discrimination which violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, affording employees the right to work in a hostile-free environment, free from discriminatory ridicule, hostility, insult, or intimidation
    sexual harassment
  134. ___ defined: unwelcome sexual advances, requests for favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of sexual nature.
    sexual harassment
  135. the EEOC recognizes two non-mutually exclusive categories of sexual harassment. what are they?
    quid pro quo-a situation where a supervisor who has the power to hire, fire or promote makes employment conditions dependent upon the sexual favors of the employee

    hostile work environment- unwelcomed behavior(s) of a sexual nature by anyone in the workplace creates a hostile, abusive, or intimidating environment or reasonably interferes with an individual's work performance
  136. ___ are actions that may seem sincere and seemingly innocent but sends signals that amy be interpreted by others as having sexual overtones; is what sometimes places individuals in precarious situations
    risky behavior
  137. examples of this is:
    hugging a fellow employee, whether male or female
    displaying a revealing photo on one's desk
    sexually oriented magazines, even closed, on your desk
    having a secret affair with someone in the workplace who is neither a subordinate or supervisor
    risky behavior
  138. from this perspective, sexual harassment is viewed as disruptive o the institutions of society. in general they see it as a matter of individual deviance and one that requires a change in the behavior of the individual
    structural functional
  139. this perspective suggest that it goes beyond the individual and is rooted in the norms and institutions of society. they point to the fact that women are often hired for their attractiveness and are usually in a subordinate position to the men to make advances toward them
    social conflict

    often, women in subordinate positions lack the resources to ward off such advances and fear reprisals that could result in loss of a job or promotion and capitulate to the demands placed on them. for social conflict theorists, sexual harassment is once again proof that subordinate workers are vulnerable and exploited to the benefit of the more powerful and wealthier citizens of our society.
  140. about carol gilligan:
    i had to get this offline because they barely talked about her in the book (page 244) and powerpoints...these are fact cards about her
    Gilligan's book is a complaint against the male centered personality psychology of Freud and Erickson, and the male centered developmental psychology of Kohlberg. Her complaint is not that it is unjust to leave women out of psychology (though she says that). Her complaint is that it is not good psychology if it leaves out half of the human race.
  141. fact card:
    Gilligan hypothesized that as younger children girls are more inclined towards caring, and boys are more inclined towards justice (Lefton, 2000). Gilligan suggests this difference is due to gender and the child’s relationship with the mother (Lefton, 2000).
    Carol Gilligan has provided a framework for the moral orientations and development of women. Current research on explicit schemas as to how women come to real-life decisions when faced with real-life dilemmas is limited. Gilligan’s theory is comprised of three stages: self-interest, self-sacrifice, and post-conventional thinking where each level is more complex. Overall, Gilligan found that girls do develop morality, differently than others. Gilligan’s theory holds particular implications for adolescent girls specifically as this is typically when they enter the transition from level two to level three. However, as do all theories Gilligan’s has advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when looking at moral orientations
  142. fact card:
    Many working mothers today are facing the reality of the second shift. This is where they put in a full day of work at the office only to come home to start their second shift, the one that entails all the housework and the raising of the family
  143. sociologist have recently coined the term ____ for individuals who marry more than one person in the course of their lifetime.
    serial monogamy
  144. what is the most frequent reason for divorce among remarriages?
  145. fact card:
    Hoschild coined the term the second shift for the hours of household labor that must be done in addition to paid employment
    hoschild found that women bear the brunt of the responsibility for the second shift
    some studies find that lack of sharing in household tasks may contribute to wives' increased thoughts about divroce
  146. fact card:
    parsons and bales argued that modern industrial society required a nuclear family structure: only two generations-parents and children. according to parsons, the nuclear family was isolated from extended kinship networks and more mobile then the extended family.
    parson and bales also believed the best way to meet the economic function in industrial society was for men to specialize in earning wages while women specialized in overseeing the family's consumption of goods and services
  147. fact card:
    pre-marital sexual behavior
    sext before marriage isnt new
    studies of marriage and birth records in the US colonial period suggest that perhaps one third of all brides were pregnant at marriage (1977)
    the premarital pregnancy rate declined in the 18th century to just over 10%, but it is clear that some premarital sexual relations still existed
    carr and walsh suggest that premarital sex was within social norms, so long as a wedding took place prior to the birth of the child.
  148. fact card
    70 years ago divorce rate there was 1,600 divorces... now its 3,800 per year

    even so it has been slowly declining since the 1980's