Anatomy Final

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Author:
andreabyerly
ID:
55692
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Anatomy Final
Updated:
2010-12-13 19:40:12
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Anatomy Comprehensive Final
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Anatomy Comprehensive Final
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  1. Difference between "Anatomy" and "Physiology"
    • Anatomy: study of structure
    • Physiology: study of function
  2. Order of an organism
    atom → molecule → organelle → cell → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
  3. Homeostasis:
    maintaining a constant internal environment or equilibrium
  4. Hypothetico-Deductive Method
    • 1) observe
    • 2) hypothesize
    • 3) experiment
    • 4) conclusion
  5. anion:
    negative

    Cl-, HCO3-
  6. cation:
    positive

    Ca++, Na+, K+
  7. Order of bonds from weakest to strongest
    Hydrogen, Ionic, Covalent
  8. Ionic Bond:
    middle strength, attracted because opposite charge
  9. Covalent Bond:
    Strongest bond, share electrons
  10. Hydrogen Bond:
    Weakest bond, hydrogen form weak attraction to O or N
  11. Acid:
    gives up H+, low pH because high concentration of H+
  12. Base:
    accept H+, high pH because low concentration of H+
  13. Neutral:
    7
  14. Body's normal pH
    7.4 (7.35 - 7.45)
  15. List the body's buffers
    • 1) Urinary
    • 2) Respiratory
    • 3) Chemical
  16. Urinary Buffer:
    • Acidic: increase H+ secretion to urine
    • Alkalotic: decrease H+ secretion
  17. Respiratory Buffer
    • Acidic: increase ventilation
    • Alkalotic: decrease ventilation
  18. Chemical Buffer
    • bind or release H+.
    • Acidic: binds
    • Alkalotic: releases

    Proteins, HCO3-, Phosphate
  19. Cell Membrane
    phospolipid bilayer, proteins
  20. Passive Transport
    no energy required, diffusion from high to low
  21. active transport
    uses energy, ATP. Sodium-Potassium pump. Low to high
  22. Osmosis:
    passive transfusion of water
  23. Osmotic Pressure
    solute. how strongly a solution draws water in
  24. cell in hypertonic solution
    crenate: shrivels
  25. cell in hypotonic solution
    lysis: grows
  26. ICF
    60%, K+, Mg++, PO43-
  27. ECF
    40%, Na+, Cl-, Ca++, HCO3
  28. DNA:
    • copied by DNA Polymerase.
    • Triple Base.

    A:T, G:C
  29. DNA to RNA
    • mRNA. Protein. RNA Polymerase.
    • Codon

    A:U, G:C
  30. tRNA
    Anicodon
  31. Mutation
    change nucleotide sequence in DNA. Makes dysfunctional protein
  32. Mitosis
    somatic cells, all but egg and sperm

    2 Diploid identical daughter cells. 46 chromosomes

    Prophase → metaphase → anaphase → telophase
  33. Meiosis
    gonadal cells.

    4 haploid daughter cells. 23 chromosomes

    • P1 → M1 → A1 → T1 → P2 → M2 → A2 → T2
    • Crossing over in P1
  34. Nondisjunction:
    homollegous chromosomes don't separate correctly
  35. Trisomy:
    result of nondisjunction. extra chromosome
  36. Monosomy
    result of nondisjunction. one less chromosome
  37. Osteoblast:
    build bone
  38. Osteoclast:
    destroys bones
  39. Fluid around CNS
    CSF in subarachnoid space and ventricles
  40. Nociceptor
    pain
  41. Mechanorecetor
    physical deformation
  42. Chemoreceptor
    chemicals
  43. photoreceptor
    light
  44. order of hearing
    auricle → external auditory canal → TM → ossicles (malleus, incas, stapes) → oval window → cochlea (organ of corti) → fires AP
  45. Vestibular Aparatus
    saccule and utricle. semicircular canals
  46. Macula Lutea:
    most cones
  47. Fovea Centralis
    Focal Point
  48. Sensory Tunic
    Retina
  49. Glaucome
    too much pressure. AH doesn't drain

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