Anatomy Final

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  1. Difference between "Anatomy" and "Physiology"
    • Anatomy: study of structure
    • Physiology: study of function
  2. Order of an organism
    atom → molecule → organelle → cell → tissue → organ → organ system → organism
  3. Homeostasis:
    maintaining a constant internal environment or equilibrium
  4. Hypothetico-Deductive Method
    • 1) observe
    • 2) hypothesize
    • 3) experiment
    • 4) conclusion
  5. anion:
    negative

    Cl-, HCO3-
  6. cation:
    positive

    Ca++, Na+, K+
  7. Order of bonds from weakest to strongest
    Hydrogen, Ionic, Covalent
  8. Ionic Bond:
    middle strength, attracted because opposite charge
  9. Covalent Bond:
    Strongest bond, share electrons
  10. Hydrogen Bond:
    Weakest bond, hydrogen form weak attraction to O or N
  11. Acid:
    gives up H+, low pH because high concentration of H+
  12. Base:
    accept H+, high pH because low concentration of H+
  13. Neutral:
    7
  14. Body's normal pH
    7.4 (7.35 - 7.45)
  15. List the body's buffers
    • 1) Urinary
    • 2) Respiratory
    • 3) Chemical
  16. Urinary Buffer:
    • Acidic: increase H+ secretion to urine
    • Alkalotic: decrease H+ secretion
  17. Respiratory Buffer
    • Acidic: increase ventilation
    • Alkalotic: decrease ventilation
  18. Chemical Buffer
    • bind or release H+.
    • Acidic: binds
    • Alkalotic: releases

    Proteins, HCO3-, Phosphate
  19. Cell Membrane
    phospolipid bilayer, proteins
  20. Passive Transport
    no energy required, diffusion from high to low
  21. active transport
    uses energy, ATP. Sodium-Potassium pump. Low to high
  22. Osmosis:
    passive transfusion of water
  23. Osmotic Pressure
    solute. how strongly a solution draws water in
  24. cell in hypertonic solution
    crenate: shrivels
  25. cell in hypotonic solution
    lysis: grows
  26. ICF
    60%, K+, Mg++, PO43-
  27. ECF
    40%, Na+, Cl-, Ca++, HCO3
  28. DNA:
    • copied by DNA Polymerase.
    • Triple Base.

    A:T, G:C
  29. DNA to RNA
    • mRNA. Protein. RNA Polymerase.
    • Codon

    A:U, G:C
  30. tRNA
    Anicodon
  31. Mutation
    change nucleotide sequence in DNA. Makes dysfunctional protein
  32. Mitosis
    somatic cells, all but egg and sperm

    2 Diploid identical daughter cells. 46 chromosomes

    Prophase → metaphase → anaphase → telophase
  33. Meiosis
    gonadal cells.

    4 haploid daughter cells. 23 chromosomes

    • P1 → M1 → A1 → T1 → P2 → M2 → A2 → T2
    • Crossing over in P1
  34. Nondisjunction:
    homollegous chromosomes don't separate correctly
  35. Trisomy:
    result of nondisjunction. extra chromosome
  36. Monosomy
    result of nondisjunction. one less chromosome
  37. Osteoblast:
    build bone
  38. Osteoclast:
    destroys bones
  39. Fluid around CNS
    CSF in subarachnoid space and ventricles
  40. Nociceptor
    pain
  41. Mechanorecetor
    physical deformation
  42. Chemoreceptor
    chemicals
  43. photoreceptor
    light
  44. order of hearing
    auricle → external auditory canal → TM → ossicles (malleus, incas, stapes) → oval window → cochlea (organ of corti) → fires AP
  45. Vestibular Aparatus
    saccule and utricle. semicircular canals
  46. Macula Lutea:
    most cones
  47. Fovea Centralis
    Focal Point
  48. Sensory Tunic
    Retina
  49. Glaucome
    too much pressure. AH doesn't drain
Author
ID
55692
Card Set
Anatomy Final
Description
Anatomy Comprehensive Final
Updated
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