Card Set Information
Terms and anatomy
Normal healing time of fractures bone?
What are the 5 stages of bone healing?
1. Inflammation - 2 days
2. Cellular proliferation - begins 2nd day
3. Callus formation - 3-4 weeks
4. Ossification - 3-4 months
5. Remodeling - normal bone maintenance
What happens during the inflammation stage of bone healing?
Blood clot called fracture hematoma is formed.
What happens during the cellular proliferation stage of bone healing?
Macrophages debride injured area.
Fibrin mesh allows for capillary and fibroblastic growth.
Fibroblasts and osteoblasts form periosteal callus.
What happens during the callus formation stage of bone growth?
Bone fragments grow together
What happens during the ossification stage of bone healing?
New tissue calcifies.
What processes can disrupt bone healing?
- Distraction of bone fragments
- dec.blood supply
- interposition of soft tissue
delayed union fracture
Lengthened healing time for bine
Fails to heal in resonable time frame due to poor positioning, improper immob
Fx heals incorrect position
Erythrocytes sedimentation test
Measrues how long it takes blood cells to settle on bottom of test tube. They settle faster during inflamm. Dx - inflamm conditions like RA
Proteins in white blood cells
Dx - anklyosing spondylitis
Latex fixation test
Detects rheumatoid factors for dx of RA
Rheumatoid factors test
Measure amount to rheumatoid factor in the blood.
Dx - RA
Needed for building new bone. Inc levels indicates bone disease.
Calcium and phosphorus elevation dxs.
Dx of osteoporosis or osteomalacia
Abnormally high levels of serum irate suggest
High levels of urinary uric acid suggest
Antinuclear antibody test
Dx of autoimmune disorders
Bence jones protein
Produced by malignant plasma cells
Used to id disease causing microorganisms
Dx for infectious diseases
What 5 conditions can occur with lymphedema?
hardening of soft tissue
result of acute strepococcal infection of the skin causing inflammation. Involves the fat underlying the skin.
change of normal skin cells into hard material such as keratin
involves the growth of thick scaly bumps on skin
Vertical - divides body into right and left sections
vertical plane which divides body into anterior and posterior
horizontal - divides body into upper and lower
A sagittal plane dividing the body through the median into right and left halves
Also coronal plane - anterior and posterior
abnormal stiffness in a joint caused by injury or disease. Often results in RA
pain in joint
inflamm of bone and cartilage
genetic condition which results in production of defective Type 1 collagen in body. Deformed, brittle and easly fx bones.
formation of bone
- abnormal softening of the bone due to loss of bone mineral.
- Dec. amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the blood which results from dec. vitamin D.
- disease of aging
- articular cartilage wears away causing friction and pain
- infection of bone and bone marrow
- bacterial or fungal
- infection starts in another part of body and travels through bloodstream to bone
- death of bone tissue
- results from disease or trauma that destroys blood supply to the diseased area
Loss of bone density due to loss of calcium
Loss of bone mass to an abnormally low level
replacement of a joint
surgically opening a joint by an incision
cutting of bone
intentionally fracturing a bone in order to correct an abnormal structure
surgical fusion of a joint
removal of synovial fluid from a joint by needle puncture.
removal of lamina of vertebrae to dec. pressure on nerve root
Disarticulation of joint
amputation through joint
incision of a ligament
incision of a muscle
incision of a nerve
incision of tendon
excision of a joint
excision of dead bone
- fusion of bones which are normally separate
- cab be surgical or natural
transplant of cells, tissue or entire organ from one species to another of the same species
transplant of cells, tissue or entire organs from one part of the body to another site within the same body
transplant of cells, tissue or organs from one species into another species
transplant of cells, tissues or organs from one organism to a genetically identical recipient
deviation of the broken bones from the normal position
loss of articular cartilage due to breakdown of cartilage matrix and cells
chondrocytes form cartilage
disease of cartilage
surgical cutting of cartilage
surgical repair of cartilage
group of disorders of the cartilage and bone
separation of the edges of a wound
- use of healing to stop bleading
- 2 types - electrocautery and chemical cautery
joining of 2 structures together
joining together of 2 normally separate tissues
fold, ridge or pleat in synovial tissue of the jt. capsule
splitting of an anatomical structure into 2 parts
rounded process at the end of bones which serve to articulate with another bone
process on a bone above condyle and serve as attachment sites for ligaments and tendons
natural opening in a bone through which nerves, ligaments and blood vessels pass
Depression on a bone
cup shaped depression on a bone. Smaller than a fossa
nodule on a bone which allows for attachment of muscles and ligaments
shaft of bone
site of bone growth
end of a bone
active formation occurs here in the bone
thin dense fibrous tissue covering the bone that contains blood vessels and nerves
lines the inner part of the bones that have a medulllary cavity
soft thin membrane lining the inside of a joint cavity