Anatomy.txt

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lsweeterman
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Anatomy.txt
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2010-12-13 20:02:35
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anatomy
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  1. 2 types of bone(connective) tissue.
    • 1. Compact (cortical)
    • 2. Cancellous (spongy)
  2. What is compact bone tissue?
    Surrounds the marrow cavity and is hard and dense.
  3. What is Cancellous bone tissue?
    Ends of bone and lines medullary cavity in long bones.
  4. What is periostium and what are it's two layers?
    • 1. Surrounds the bone and protects it from infection
    • 2. Inner layer - new blood cells
    • 3. Nerves and blood vessels within periostium nourish underlying bone.
  5. What tissue lines the medullary cavity?
    Endosteum
  6. What cavity contains the blood supply for the bone?
    Medullary cavity
  7. 3 major types of bone cells.
    • 1. Osteocytes
    • 2. Osteoblasts
    • 3. Osteoclasts
  8. What is the job of the 3 major bone cells?
    Works together to produce and destroy bone tissue and keep bones healthy.
  9. What are osteocytes?
    • - mature bine cells which develop from osteoblasts
    • - final stage of bone maturation
    • - non dividing
    • - present in cortical and cancellous bine
  10. What are osteoblasts?
    • - cell that manufactors bone
    • - produces a matrix that mineralizes
    • - found in all types of bone
  11. What is an osteoblasts?
    • - bone cell thqt breaka down the bone matrix
    • - reabsorbs mineralized bone
  12. What is the shaft of a long bone called and made up of?
    • 1. Diaphysis
    • 2. Cnacellous bone
  13. What is the epiphyses?
    sites of bone growth
  14. Sesmoid bones are usually located where?
    • Within a tendon
    • I.e patella
  15. What are the 8 bones of the cranium?
    • 1. Frontal
    • 2. 2 parietal
    • 3. Occipital
    • 4. Temporal
    • 5. Sphenoid
    • 6. Ethmoid
  16. What are the bones in the cranium attaches by?
    Immoveble joints called sutures.
  17. What are the 14 facial bones?
    • 1. 2 maxillae- upper jaw/ hold teeth
    • 2. 2 palatine- form nasal cavity and hard palate
    • 3. 2 zygomatic - cheeks
    • 4. 2 lacrimal bones - inner corner of eye orbit
    • 5. 2 nasal bones - bridge of nose
    • 6. Mandible - lower jaw
    • 7. 2 inferior nasal conchae - nasal cavity
    • 8. Volmer - nasal septum
  18. What makes up the verterbral column?
    • 1. C1 - atlas
    • 2. C2 -axis
    • 3. 7 cervical vert.
    • 4. 12 thoracic vert.
    • 5. 5 lumbar
    • 6. sacrum - 5 bones fused
    • 7. Coccyx - 4 fused vert.
  19. What separates the vertebral bodies?
    Interverterbral discs.
  20. What forms the vertebral arch?
    • - penducles
    • - laminae
    • - spinous process
  21. What anatomical part does the spinal cord pass through?
    Vertebral arch
  22. What is the point of attachment for the ligaments and muscles of the spine?
    Transverse process
  23. What connects one vertebrae to another?
    Articulating processes
  24. The thorax is made up of what boney structures?
    • 1. Ribs
    • 2. Sternum
  25. How many bones make up the rib cage and what types are they?
    • 1. 12 ribs
    • 2. First 7 are - true ribs - attaches to sternum by costal cartilage
    • 3. 3 are false ribs - not connectes to sternum
    • 4. Last 2 are floating ribs
  26. 3 parts of the sternum
    • 1. Upper manubrium
    • 2. Middle body
    • 3. Xyphoid process
  27. Bones making up the pectoral girdle.
    • 1. Clavicle
    • 2. Scapula
  28. 2 attachments of the clavicle
    • 1. Acromian process of scapula
    • 2. Manubrium of sternum
  29. What is the boney attachment for the biceps?
    Coracoid process
  30. What is the attachment site for the humerus?
    Glenoid fossa
  31. Name the 8 carpal bones.
    • 1. Distal from lateral-medial
    • Trapezium/trapezoid/capitate/hamate
    • 2. Proximal
    • Scaphoid/lunate/triquetrium/
    • pisiform
  32. What forms the midline of the pelvic girdle?
    Sacrum and coccyx
  33. What makes up the innominate bone?
    • Illium
    • Ischium
    • Pubis
  34. What forms the pubic symphysis?
    The 2 pubic bones and a disc of cartilage
  35. What makes up the hip joint?
    Acetabulum and head of humerous
  36. Name the 7 tarsal bones
    • Proximal - calcaneous/talus/ navicular
    • Distal - cuboid/medial cueiform/intermediate cuneiform/lateral cuneiform
  37. 3 types of joints
    • Immovable - synarthrosis
    • Slighly movable - amphiarthrosis
    • Freely movable - diarthrosis (synovial)
  38. Name the 6 types of freely movable joints.
    • Ball and socket - move in all directions
    • Condyloid - move in 1 plane
    • Gliding - twisting/side to side
    • Hinge - 1 direction
    • Pivot - rotational
    • Saddle - move on many planes
  39. 4 muscles of the rotator cuff
    • Infraspinatus
    • Subscapularis
    • Supraspinatus
    • Teres minor
  40. What rotator cuff tendons insert on the greater tubercle?
    • Supraspinatus
    • Infraspinatus
    • Teres minor
  41. What rotator cuff muscle inserts at the lesser tubercle?
    Subscapularus
  42. What 3 ligaments tie the hip joint together?
    • Iliofemoral - joins pelvis and femure
    • Pubofemoral - pubis to femur
    • Ischiofemoral - acetabular rim to femur
  43. The true bones of the ankle include.
    • Tibia
    • Fibula
    • Talus
  44. What makes up the subtalar joint?
    • Talus
    • Calcaneous
  45. 3 sections of the menisci of the knee.
    • Anterior horn
    • Body
    • Posterior horn
  46. What is a baker's cyst?
    Synovial herniation through thr posteruor capsule of the knee
  47. What forms the carpal tunnel?
    • Carpal bones
    • Transverse carpal lig.
  48. What nerve can be compressed in the carpal tunnel?
    Median

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