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2 types of bone(connective) tissue.
1. Compact (cortical)
2. Cancellous (spongy)
What is compact bone tissue?
Surrounds the marrow cavity and is hard and dense.
What is Cancellous bone tissue?
Ends of bone and lines medullary cavity in long bones.
What is periostium and what are it's two layers?
1. Surrounds the bone and protects it from infection
2. Inner layer - new blood cells
3. Nerves and blood vessels within periostium nourish underlying bone.
What tissue lines the medullary cavity?
What cavity contains the blood supply for the bone?
3 major types of bone cells.
What is the job of the 3 major bone cells?
Works together to produce and destroy bone tissue and keep bones healthy.
What are osteocytes?
- mature bine cells which develop from osteoblasts
- final stage of bone maturation
- non dividing
- present in cortical and cancellous bine
What are osteoblasts?
- cell that manufactors bone
- produces a matrix that mineralizes
- found in all types of bone
What is an osteoblasts?
- bone cell thqt breaka down the bone matrix
- reabsorbs mineralized bone
What is the shaft of a long bone called and made up of?
2. Cnacellous bone
What is the epiphyses?
sites of bone growth
Sesmoid bones are usually located where?
Within a tendon
What are the 8 bones of the cranium?
2. 2 parietal
What are the bones in the cranium attaches by?
Immoveble joints called sutures.
What are the 14 facial bones?
1. 2 maxillae- upper jaw/ hold teeth
2. 2 palatine- form nasal cavity and hard palate
3. 2 zygomatic - cheeks
4. 2 lacrimal bones - inner corner of eye orbit
5. 2 nasal bones - bridge of nose
6. Mandible - lower jaw
7. 2 inferior nasal conchae - nasal cavity
8. Volmer - nasal septum
What makes up the verterbral column?
1. C1 - atlas
2. C2 -axis
3. 7 cervical vert.
4. 12 thoracic vert.
5. 5 lumbar
6. sacrum - 5 bones fused
7. Coccyx - 4 fused vert.
What separates the vertebral bodies?
What forms the vertebral arch?
- spinous process
What anatomical part does the spinal cord pass through?
What is the point of attachment for the ligaments and muscles of the spine?
What connects one vertebrae to another?
The thorax is made up of what boney structures?
How many bones make up the rib cage and what types are they?
1. 12 ribs
2. First 7 are - true ribs - attaches to sternum by costal cartilage
3. 3 are false ribs - not connectes to sternum
4. Last 2 are floating ribs
3 parts of the sternum
1. Upper manubrium
2. Middle body
3. Xyphoid process
Bones making up the pectoral girdle.
2 attachments of the clavicle
1. Acromian process of scapula
2. Manubrium of sternum
What is the boney attachment for the biceps?
What is the attachment site for the humerus?
Name the 8 carpal bones.
1. Distal from lateral-medial
What forms the midline of the pelvic girdle?
Sacrum and coccyx
What makes up the innominate bone?
What forms the pubic symphysis?
The 2 pubic bones and a disc of cartilage
What makes up the hip joint?
Acetabulum and head of humerous
Name the 7 tarsal bones
Proximal - calcaneous/talus/ navicular
Distal - cuboid/medial cueiform/intermediate cuneiform/lateral cuneiform
3 types of joints
Immovable - synarthrosis
Slighly movable - amphiarthrosis
Freely movable - diarthrosis (synovial)
Name the 6 types of freely movable joints.
Ball and socket - move in all directions
Condyloid - move in 1 plane
Gliding - twisting/side to side
Hinge - 1 direction
Pivot - rotational
Saddle - move on many planes
4 muscles of the rotator cuff
What rotator cuff tendons insert on the greater tubercle?
What rotator cuff muscle inserts at the lesser tubercle?
What 3 ligaments tie the hip joint together?
Iliofemoral - joins pelvis and femure
Pubofemoral - pubis to femur
Ischiofemoral - acetabular rim to femur
The true bones of the ankle include.
What makes up the subtalar joint?
3 sections of the menisci of the knee.
What is a baker's cyst?
Synovial herniation through thr posteruor capsule of the knee
What forms the carpal tunnel?
Transverse carpal lig.
What nerve can be compressed in the carpal tunnel?