Chapter 17

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Livinchillinlove
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Chapter 17
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2010-12-15 17:58:52
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  1. Urethra
    Single canal that carries urine to the outside of the body
  2. Urethral Meatus
    Opening in the urethra to the outside of the body
  3. Urine
    Fluid produced by the kidneys, containing water and waste products
  4. Urea
    Waste product formed in the liver, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
  5. Creatinine
    Waste product of muscle metabolism, filtered out of the blood by the kidneys, and excreted in urine
  6. Albuminuria
    Presence of albumin in the urine, such as occurs in renal disease or in normal urine after heavy exercise
  7. Anuria
    Absence of urine formation
  8. Bacteriuria
    Presence of bacteria in the urine
  9. Dysuria
    Painful urination
  10. Enuresis
    Involuntary discharge of urine, usually referring to a lack of bladder control
  11. Noctural Enuresis
    Bed-wetting during sleep
  12. Glucosuria
    Glucose (sugar) in the urine
  13. Hematuria
    Presence of blood in the urine
  14. Incontinence
    Involuntary discharge of urine or feces
  15. Stress Urinary incontinence
    Involuntary discharge of urine with coughing, sneezing, and/or strained exercise
  16. Ketonuria
    Presence of ketone bodies in the urine
  17. Ketone Bodies
    Ketone Compounds
    Acetone, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetoacetic acid; products of metabolism that appear in the urine from the body's abnormal utilization of carbohydrates, such as occurs in uncontrolled diabetes or starvation
  18. Nocturia
    Urination at night
  19. Oliguria
    Scanty production of urine
  20. Polyuria
    Condition of excessive urination
  21. Pyuria
    Presence of white cells in the urine, usually indicating infection
  22. Urinary Retention
    Retention of urine resulting from an inability to void (urinate) naturally because of spasm or obstruction
  23. Adult Polycystic Kidney Disease
    Inherited condition of multiple cysts that gradually form in the kidney, causing destruction of normal tissue that leads to renal failure; diagnosed in adults presenting with hypertension, kidney enlargement, and recurrent urinary tract infections
  24. Glomerulonephritis
    Form of nephritis involving the glomerulus
  25. Hydronephrosis
    Pooling of urine in dilated areas of the renal pelvis and calices of one or both kidneys caused by an obstructed outflow of urine
  26. Nephritis
    Inflammation of the kidney
  27. Pyelonephritis
    Inflammation of the renal pelvis
  28. Nephrosis
    Degenerative disease of the renal tubules
  29. Nephrolithiasis
    Presence of a renal stone or stones
  30. Cystitis
    inflammation of the bladder
  31. Urethritis
    Inflammation of the urethra
  32. Urethrocystitis
    Inflammation of the urethra and bladder
  33. Urethral Stenosis
    Narrowed condition of the urethra
  34. Urinary Tract Infection
    Invasion of pathogenic organisms (commonly bacteria) in the urinary tract, especially the urethra and bladder; symptoms include dysuria, urinary frequency, and malaise
  35. Uremia
    Azotemia
    Excess of urea and other nitrogenous waste in the blood caused by kidney failure
  36. Cystoscopy
    Examination of the bladder using a rigid or flexible cystoscope
  37. Kidney Biopsy (Bx)
    Renal Biopsy
    Removal of kidney tissue for pathologic examination
  38. Intravenous Pyelogram
    Intravenous Urogram
    X-ray image of the urinary tract obtained after iodine constrast medium has been injected into the bloodstream; the contrastpasses through the kidney and may reveal an obstruction, evidence of trauma, etc.
  39. Kidneys, Ureter, Bladder
    Abdominal x-ray image of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder; typically used as a scout film before obtaining an intravenous pyelogram
  40. Scout Film
    Plain-film x-ray image obtained to detect any obvious pathology before further imaging
  41. Renal Angiogram
    Renal Arteriogram
    X-ray image of the renal artery obtained after injecting contrast material into a catheter in the artery
  42. Retrograde Pyelogram
    Retrograde Urogram
    X-ray image of the bladder, ureters, and renal pelvis obtained after contrast medium has been injected up to the kidney by way of a small catheter passed through a cystoscope; used to detect the prescence of stones, obstruction, etc.
  43. Voiding cystourethrogram
    x-ray image of the bladder and urethra obtained during urination
  44. Abdominal Sonogram
    Abdominal ultrasound image of the urinary tract, including the kidney and bladder
  45. Urinalysis
    Physical, chemical, and microscopic examination or urine
  46. Specific gravity
    Measure of the concentration or dilution of urine
  47. pH
    Measure of the acidity or alkalinity of urine
  48. Glucose
    Chemical test used to detect sugar in the urine; most often used to detect sugar in the urine; most often used to screen for diabetes
  49. Albumin (alb)
    Chemical test used to detect the presence of albumin in the urine
  50. Ketones
    chemical test used to detect the presence of ketone bodies in the urine; positive test indicates that fats are being used by the body instead of carbohydrates, which occurs during starvation or an uncontrolled diabetic state
  51. Urine Occult Blood
    Chemical test for the presence of hidden blood in the urine resulting from red blood cell hemolysis; indicates bleeding in the kidneys
  52. Bilirubin
    Chemical test used to detect bilirubin in the urine; increased amounts are seen in gallbladder and liver disease
  53. Urobilinogen
    Chemical test to determine the presence of bacteria in the urine
  54. Microscopic findings
    microscopic identification of abnormal constituents in the urine; reported per high- or low-power field
  55. Urine Culture & Sensitivity
    Isolation of a urine specimen in a culture medium to propagate the growth of microorganisms; organisms that grow in the culture and are identified, as are drugs to which they are sensitive
  56. Blood urea nitrogen
    Blood test to determine the level of urea in the blood; a high BUN indicates the inability of one or both kidneys to excrete urea
  57. Creatinine, serum
    Test to determine the level of creatinine in the blood; useful in assessing kidney function
  58. Creatinine, Urine
    Test to determine the level of creatinine in the urine
  59. Creatinine clearance testing
    Measurements of the level of creatinine in the blood and in a 24-hour urine specimen to determine the rate at which creatinine is "cleared" from the blood by the kidneys
  60. Urologic endoscopic surgery
    Use of specialized endoscopes within the urinary tract to perform various surgical procedures, such as resection of a tumor, repair of an obstruction, stone retrieval, placement of a stent, etc.
  61. Resectoscope
    Urologic endoscope inserted through the urethra to resect lesions of the bladder, urethra, or prostate
  62. Intracorporeal Lithotripsy
    Method of destroying stones within the urinary tract using discharges of electrical energy that are transmitted to a probe within a flexible endoscope; most commonly used to pulverize bladder stones
  63. Nephrotomy
    Incision into the kidney
  64. Nephrorrhaphy
    Suture of an injured kidney
  65. Nephrolithotomy
    Incision into the kidney for the removal of stones
  66. Nephrectomy
    Excision of a kidney
  67. Pyeloplasty
    Surgical reconstruction of the renal pelvis
  68. Stent placement
    Use of device (stent) to hold open vessels or tubes
  69. Kidney transplantation
    Renal transplantation
    Transfer of a kidney from the body of one person (donor) to another (recipient)
  70. Urinary Diversion
    Creation of a temporary or permanent diversion of the urinary tract to provide a new passage through which urine exits the body; used to treat defects or diseases
  71. Noncontinent Ileal Conduit
    Removal of a portion of the ileum to use as a conduit to which the ureters are attached at one end; the other end is brought through an opening (stoma) created in the abdomen; urine drains continually into an external appliance (bag); noncontinent indicates the urine cannot be held and drains continually
  72. Continent urostomy
    An internal reservoir (pouch) constricted from a segment of intestine that diverts urine through an opening (stoma) that is brought through the abdominal wall; a valve is created internally to prevent leakage, and the patient empties the pouch by catheterization; continent refers to the ability to hold or retain urine
  73. Orthotopic bladder
    Neobladder
    Bladder constructed from portions of intestine connected to the urethra, allowing "natural" voiding

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