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what are gender stereotyping and gender roles?
beliefs that are commonly held about the characteristics that are believed to be appropriate.
what are gender roles?
the reflection of these stereotypes in everyday behavior
what is gender identity?
refers to perception of the self as relatively masculine or feminine
refers to any association of objects, activities, roles, or traits with biological sex in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes of gender
reflecting competence, rationality, and assertiveness, viewed as masculine
emphasizing warmth, caring and sensitivity, viewed as feminine
gender stereotypes and roles across age
- toddler: gender-sterotyped play appears
- preschool-age: rigid stereotypes in play, appearances, occupation
- middle childhood: stereotyping of personality increases and academic achievement
- adolescence: more open-minded view of gender behavior but more tolerated for females than males
in group favoritism
having great knowledge of trait stereotypes that portrays own gender in a positive light
gender stereotype flexibility
overlap in the characteristics of males and females
ethnicity and gender
- black children hold less stereotyped views of females than white children
- ethnic minorities are often perceived in gender-stereotyped ways
why do gender stereotypes and roles exist?
- sex hormones: affect brain development and neural activity, and affect play styles
- cross cultural data: most societies promote instrumental traits in males and expressive traits in females
- males sex hormone, that have shown to increase active play in both male female animals
- also promote male typical behavior and aggression and suppresses maternal caregiving