History Imperialism Terms

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History Imperialism Terms
2010-12-13 22:02:59

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  1. Imperialism: the economic and political domination of a strong nation over other weaker nations
  2. Alfred T Mahan: an officer in the US navy who taught at the Naval War College who argued for a strong US navy to protect its merchant ships defend the peacetime shipping lanes (right to trade with other countries) essential to American economic growth. He wrote the Influence of Sea Power Upon History
  3. McKinley Tariff: eliminated all duties on sugar, gave subsides to sugar producers in the US. Now Hawaiian sugar is more expensive than the US sugar, despite the lack of tariffs and sales of sugar in Hawaii declined
  4. Queen Liliuokalani: ascended the Hawaiian throne and she disliked the influence American settlers gained in Hawaii so she tried to impose a new constitution to reassert her authority as the ruler of the Hawaiian people. This lead to the annexation of Hawaii five years later
  5. Stanford B Doyle: after the queen was imprisoned, a provisional government was established with Sanford B. Dole as president
  6. Annexation: (US annexed Hawaii) means becoming part of the US.
  7. William McKinley: became president and did not want war, because it would cost too many lives and hurt the economy. He asked Spanish if the US could negotiate to end war. He was seen as week by de Lome (Spanish ambassador to the US). Even though the public didn�t love him because they wanted war and he did not, they were so mad at the insults in the letter.
  8. George Dewey: led his squadron into Manila Bay (Philippines) and they destroyed Spanish warships
  9. Rough Riders: volunteer Calvary from the American West, a flamboyant mix of cowboys, miners, and law officers (commanders: Leonard Wood and Roosevelt) who advanced towards Santiago
  10. Protectorate: instead of becoming colonies, areas became these in which the imperial power allowed local rulers to stay in control and protected them from rebellions and invasion and in exchange the rulers had to accept the advice from Europeans how to govern.
  11. Foraker Act:
  12. Emilio Aguinaldo: a Filipino revolutionary leader who had staged an unsuccessful uprising against the Spanish. He launched a new guerilla. He believed Americans were his allies but the Americans seized the Philippine capital of Manila from the Spanish but wouldn�t allow his forces to the city or recognize his rebel government (hostility between Philippines & America grew as they waited for the war to end)
  13. Concepts:
    • 3 major roots of Imperialism:
    • ? Economic routes: needed raw materials and new markets, foreign trade could solve overproduction and economic depression, and by achieving a balance of trade (exporting more than importing) the US can be a leading economic power
    • ? Political/Military routes: seeing that other nations had a global military presence, American foreign-policy experts advised that the US build its own military strength, also Mahan wanted a navy
    • ? Racist routes: racial/cultural superiority of the people of Anglo-Saxon (English) descent, some American�s combined social Darwinism with belief in racial superiority of anglo-saxons, and also they argued the US had the responsibility to spread Christianity and civilization to the world�s inferior people (non-white)
  14. Why was Hawaii important to the US:
    • ? Economically important: America owned sugar plantations in Hawaii that accounted for � of Hawaii�s wealth
    • ? Hawaiian sugar sold in the US
    • ? A recession stuck Hawaii? US ratified trade treaty with them to cut tariffs on sugar; senate insisted Hawaii give US rights to Pearl Harbor
    • ? This trade treaty lead to a boom in Hawaii�s sugar
    • ? Planters (white business leaders) wanted the king to accept a new constitution to limit his powers and give voting rights to only wealthy landowners ? gave control of government to businessmen
    • ? McKinley Tariff eliminated duty-free Hawaiian sugar ? crisis, Hawaiian sugar growers faced competition in the American market (esp from Cuba sugar)
    • ? American planters in Hawaii called for the US to annex the islands so they wouldn�t have to pay the duty
    • ? King died and sister took over (Liliuokalani) and she wanted to restored her power and business groups organized a revolution against the queen
    • ? They imprisoned her and set up a provisional government with Dole as president
    • ? Cleveland would not annex and he tried to let the queen back on her throne but Dole wouldn�t give up his power, so he recognized the Republic of Hawaii
    • ? McKinley favored annexation (Hawaii did not get to vote)
  15. Pro Imperialism:
    • ? Make more $ with the new consumers as they expand business
    • ? Gave the US materials to work with
    • ? The military force could protect the US, make them more powerful and look my superior
    • ? Had confidence and felt superiority so that they would feel more powerful (racist)
    • ? By spreading their government and introducing democracy they�re helping the Philippians
    • ? Fulfilling god�s duties by spreading superiority
  16. No Imperialism:
    • ? It would be expensive to set up an empire, government, pay people, ect
    • ? Would have to provide the country that gave them new materials
    • ? Would be expensive to set up a new military
    • ? The people of the Philippines might notice racist beliefs and feel �insuperior� and rebel
    • ? They could be thought of as building/ creating a tyranny ? being hypocritical
    • ? Makes them come off as thinking they they�re the best and it could cause wars and anger from other countries
  17. Panama Canal:
    • ? Wanted to build it: saw Japan and Germany as a threat to the US (protecting the US), move the navy to protect us (strategic reasons), help the trade by moving the navy back and forth between the Atlantic and Pacific Ocean
    • ? Columbia rejected the treaty; TR (without permission of senate) supported Panama�s revolt against Columbia ? using big stick diplomacy by sending the navy down as a threat
    • ? It took 8 to 9 years and was a lot of money
    • ? Hard physical construction/labor (in the jungle and was yellow fever & diseases)
  18. Roosevelt Corollary:
    • ? Wanted to see other countries in western hemisphere stable, orderly, and prosperous
    • ? If a country can act with efficiency and decency in social and political matters and keep order, the US did not need to intervene
    • ? Chronic wrongdoings ? he would intervene
    • ? It is the right of the US to act as an international power if needed
    • ? Independence is a right that must be expressed with the proper responsibility