A&P Class, Exam #6 Student's Questions

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trulyabaker
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A&P Class, Exam #6 Student's Questions
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2010-12-14 09:58:27
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  1. Meningitis affects who?
    most often affects infants and children and is serious
  2. What are the three (3) horns of the gray matter?
    • posterior horn
    • anterior horn
    • lateral horn
  3. What does the cervical enlargement do?
    supplies nerves to the upper limbs
  4. Name the three (3) layers of meninges.
    dura mater, arachnoid mater, pia mater
  5. What are the 5 types of neurotransmitters?
    chemical, biogenic amines, amino acids, neuropeptides, gases
  6. Name three of the neurotransmitters of peptides.
    enkephalins, endorphins, substance p
  7. What connects the gray matter in the spinal cord?
    gray commissure
  8. Where in the spinal cord will your find cerebrospinal fluid?

    {T}
    central canal
  9. Where in the spinal cord will you find cerebrospinal fluid?

    {T}
    central canal
  10. Myasthenia gravis reflects a deficiency in communication by _________ because receptors for this neurotransmitter have been destroyed.
    Acetylcholine
  11. What absorbs excess or wasted CSF?
    • arachnoid granulations or arachnoid (vile)
    • (absorbed into the blood continuously)
  12. What is white matter composed of?
    longitudinal bundles of myelinated nerve fibers
  13. Neurons in brain or spinal cord synthesis what?
    • neuropeptides
    • (teachers answers "who really supplies…the endoplasmic reticulum of the neuron cell bodies)
  14. What two (2) neurotransmitters do dual reuptake inhibitors block?

    {T}
    serotonin, norepinephrine
  15. What enzyme decomposes acetylcholine on postsynaptic membranes?
    acetylcholinesterase
  16. What neurotransmitter is deficient with Alzheimer disease?
    acetylcholine
  17. How many segments does the spinal cord have?
    31 segments
  18. Define convergence.
    axons originating from different parts of the nervous system leading to the same neuron
  19. What is the crossed extensor reflex?
    this reflex is when due to interneuron pathways in the reflex center of the spinal cord that allow sensory impulses arriving on one side of the cord to pass across to the other side and produce an opposite effect
  20. What does the choroid plexus do?

    {T}
    secrete CSF
  21. What structure anchors the spinal cord proper to the sacrum? {T}
    filum terminale
  22. A person who is diagnosed with amyothrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease) usually has long to live?
    2-5 years
  23. What are some of the complications associated with meningitis?
    complications include loss of vision, loss of hearing, paralysis, and mental retardation
  24. What makes it possible for a neuron to sum impulses from different sources?
    convergence makes it possible to a neuron
  25. Where does most CSF form?
    in the lateral ventricles (one and two)
  26. The spinal cord proper ends at L1 and L2. What is the area below that called?

    {T}
    conus medullaris
  27. What is the area below the conus medullaris?

    {T}
    cauda equina
  28. What is the thickening in the spinal cord called?
    either a cervical enlargement or lumbar enlargement
  29. Which nerve tract carries motor impulses , and coordinates muscles, and controls pressure?
    • rubrospinal tract
    • (carry motor impulses from the brain to skeletal muscles)
  30. What kind of impulses does the fasciculus cuneatus and fasciculus gracilis conduct?
    sensory impulses
  31. What are the four (4) major ascending tracts?
    • fasciculus gracilis
    • fasciculus cuneatus
    • spinothalmic
    • spinocerebellar
  32. Where do sensory impulses that originate in touch receptors cross over?
    medulla oblongata
  33. Name 5 parts of a reflex arch (in order).
    • receptor
    • sensory neuron
    • interneuron
    • motor neuron
    • effector
  34. What contribution did Phineas Gage give?
    …helped reveal that the two small areas in the front of the brain (help) control rational decision-making and processing of emotion…he retained his intellect and ability to move, speak, learn, and remember…but Gage was no longer Gage…because of that iron rod called a tampering rod that went straight through his skull...
  35. What experimental drug is a carbohydrate normally found on neurocell membranes?
    GM1 ganglioside
  36. What are the two main functions of the spinal cord?
    • is a center for spinal reflexes
    • is a conduit for nerve impulses to and from the brain
  37. Name the meninges in order of most superficial to deep.

    {T}
    • dura mater
    • arachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  38. Name the two (2) anterior grooves of the spinal cord that divide it into left and right regions.
    anterior median fissure (deep, extends length of spinal cord)

    posterior median sulcus (shallow, extends length of spinal cord)
  39. What type of reflex happens when a person touches something painful?
    withdrawal reflex
  40. Define facilitation.
    subthreshold stimulation of a neuron that increases response to further stimulation
  41. a result of incoming impulses and neurotransmitter release, a particular neuron of a neuronal pool may be excited by some presynaptic neurons and inhibited by others, if the net effect is excitatory threshold may be reached and outgoing impulse triggered, if the net effect is excitatory but subthreshold an impulse will not be triggered, but the neuron is close to threshold, it will be much more responsive to any further excitatory stimulation
  42. What is the most common cause of severe direct injury to the spinal cord?
    vehicular accidents
  43. What is the petition of the dura mater that separates the walls of the cerebrum from the cerebellum?

    {T}
    tentorium cerebelli
  44. What cells make up the choroid plexuses?
    a single layer of specialized ependymal cells joined closely by tight junctions covers the….
  45. What type of material is the dura mater made of?

    {T}
    composed primarily of tough, white, dense connective tissue

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