Geo 139

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underheart
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55836
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Geo 139
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2010-12-14 01:06:37
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geography
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Final Exam
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  1. Photosynthesis
    the process through which plants use the sun’s energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds,especially sugars that are used to build tissues.
  2. Carbon Cycle
    the system through which carbon circulates through the earth’s geosphere地层, atmosphere, and biosphere生物大气层, specifically including exchanges between carbon in the earth (e.g., as petroleum) and the atmosphere (as CO2) through combustion燃烧过程 and back again through sequestration扣押.
  3. Carbon Sequestration
    the capture and storage of carbon from the atmosphere into the biosphere or the geosphere through either biological means, as in plant photosynthesis, or engineered means.
  4. Greenhouse Effect
    the characteristic of the earth’s atmosphere, based on the presence of important gases including water vapor and carbon dioxide, to trap and retain heat, leading to temperatures that can sustain life.
  5. Collective Action
    cooperation and coordination协调 between individuals to achieve common goals and outcomes.
  6. Emissions Trading
    a system for exchanging the right to emit发射/pollute limited amounts of determinant决定物的 materials (like greenhouse gases). These rights or credits are exchangeable between emitters, but subject to a total regulatory limit.
  7. Command-and-Control
    forms of regulation that depend on government laws and agencies to enforce rules, including such things as regulated limits on pollution or fuel efficiency standards; contrasts with market-based or incentive-based approaches.
  8. Uneven development
    the geographic tendency趋势 within capitalism to produce highly disparate截然不同的 economic conditions (wealth/poverty) and economic activity (production/consumption) in different places.
  9. Capital Accumulation累积
    the tendency in capitalism for profits, capital goods, savings, and value to flow towards, pool in, and/or accrue in specific places, leading to the centralization and concentration of both money and power.
  10. Surplus Value
    in political economic (and Marxist) thought, the value produced by underpaying labor or over-extracting from the environment, which is accumulated by owners and investors.
  11. Climax Vegetation顶极植被
    the theoretical assemblage聚集 of plants arising from succession连续 over time, determined by climatic and soil conditions.
  12. Disturbance干扰
    an event or shock that disrupts an ecological system, thereafter leading either to recovery of that system (e.g., through succession) or movement of the system into a new state.
  13. Succession
    ecologically, the idealized tendency for disturbed forest areas to recover through stages of species invasion and growth, progressing from grassland, to shrubs灌木, and eventually back to tree cover.
  14. Acid Rain
    deposition沉淀物 of rain or snowfall with unusually high acidity, resulting from the emission of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides into the air, typically from industrial emissions. This form of precipitation沉淀 is harmful for plant life and aquatic ecosystems.
  15. Ecosystem Services
    benefits that an organic system creates through its function, including foods resources, clean air or water, pollination, carbon sequestration, energy, and nutrient cycling, among many others.
  16. Biodiversity生物多样化
    the total variability and variety of life forms in a region, ecosystem, or around the world; typically used as a measure of the health of an environmental system.
  17. Reconciliation调和 Ecology
    a science of 1imagining, creating, and sustaining 2habitats栖息地, productive environments, and biodiversit in places 3used, traveled, and inhabited by human beings.
  18. Induced 感应的Intensification激烈化
    a thesis predicting that where agricultural populations grow, demands for food lead to technological innovations resulting in increased food production on the same amount of available land.
  19. Secondary Succession
    the regrowth of vegetation植物 and return of species to an area cleared or reduced by disturbance, as where a forest recovers its “climax vegetation” cover after a fire.
  20. Forest Transition Theory
    a model that predicts a period of deforestation森林开伐 in a region during development, when the forest is a resource or land is cleared for agriculture, followed by a return of forest when the economy changes and population outmigrates and/or becomes conservation对自然环境的保护-oriented.
  21. Second Contradiction of Capitalism
    in Marxist thought, this describes the tendency for capitalism to eventually 1undermine逐渐削弱 the environmental conditions for its own perpetuation不朽, through 2degradation毁坏 of natural resources or damage to the health of workers, etc., predicted to eventually 3lead to environmentalist and workers’ movements to resist抵抗 capitalism, leading to 4a new form of economy. Compare to the first contradiction of capitalism.
  22. Social Reproduction
    that part of the economy, especially including household work, that depends on unremunerated无酬劳的 labor, but without which the more formal cash economy would suffer and collapse.
  23. Ecocentrism
    an environmental ethical stance立场 that argues that ecological concerns should, over and above human priorities, be central to decisions about right and wrong action (compare to anthropocentrism).
  24. Anthropocentrism
    an ethical standpoint that views human as the central factor in considerations of right or wrong action in and toward nature (compare to ecocentrism).
  25. Trophic营养 Levels
    parallel levels of energy assimilation吸收 and transfer within ecological food webs; in terrestrial陆地生物的 ecosystems, photosynthetic plants form the base trophic level, followed “up” the web by herbivores食草动物 and successive连续的 levels of carnivores肉食动物.
  26. Apex Predators尖顶掠食性动物
    also known as “top carnivores,” the animals in any ecosystem occupying the top trophic level; apex predators do not have any natural predators.
  27. Niche生态位
    in ecology, the location of an organism or species within a larger ecosystem, typically fulfilling an ecological function.
  28. Sustainable/Sustainability
    the conservation of land and resources so as to secure their availability to future generations.
  29. Rewilding
    the restoration回归 of natural ecological functioning and evolutionary进化的 processes to ecosystems; rewilding often requires the reintroduction or restoration of large predators to ecosystems.
  30. Conservation Biology
    a branch of scientific biology dedicated专注的 to exploring and maintaining biodiversity and plant and animal species.
  31. Extinction绝种 Crisis
    the current era of anthropogenically induced感应的 plant and animal species per year, the estimated average rate of extinction over long-term, geologic time, not counting mass extinction events.
  32. Stakeholders赌金保管人
    Individuals or groups with a vested interest in the outcome of disputed有争议的 actions.
  33. Natural Resource Management
    both the academic discipline训练 and professional field dedicated专注的 to the management of environmental conditions, goods, or services for social goals, which may range between instrumental起重要作用 human utility to ecological sustainability.
  34. Maximum Sustainable Yield
    the largest seasonal or annual amount of any particular natural resource (e.g., timber, fish) that can be harvested indefinitely.
  35. NEPA
    the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970 commits承诺 the US government to protecting and improving the natural environment; after NEPA, the federal government is required to write environmental impact statements (EIS) for government actions that have significant environmental impact.
  36. Masculinity男性特征
    the socially agreed upon characteristics of behavior associated with men in any society; these may vary significantly between cultures, locations, and periods of history.
  37. Purse-Seine Fishing
    an effective fishing method for species that school near the surface; a large net is encircled环绕 around the targeted catch, after which the bottom of the net is drawn tight like the strings of a purse, thus confining the catch in the net.
  38. Longliners
    an industrial fishing method deploying部署 lines baited with hundreds or thousands of hooks; longlines are usually several miles long and often result in significant bycatch.
  39. Bycatch
    non-targeted organisms incidentally caught by commercial fishing operations, including many fish species, but also a large number of birds, marine mammals, and sea turtles.
  40. Dolphin Safe Tuna
    Tuna caught without killing dolphins as bycatch.
  41. Consumer Boycott
    a method of protest that aims to pressure corporations into changing their practices by urging people to forgo purchasing products associated with the targeted corporations.
  42. Utopia/Utopian
    imaginary, idealized social conditions arising from sociopolitical systems that facilitate促使 cooperation over competition.
  43. Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs)
    usually extending 200 nautical航海有关的 miles off the coasts of sovereign states, EEZs are sea-zones within which states claim ownership over fishery and mineral resources.
  44. Fordism
    Relations of production dominant in many industrialized countries in the first several decades of the twentieth century; marked by large, vertically integrated corporations, high wages and rates of consumption, and considerable state power.
  45. Post-Fordism
    arising in the last decades of the twentieth century, the current relations of production in most industrialized countries; marked by decentralized分散的, specialized, and often subcontracted production, the prominence卓越 of transnational corporations, and diminished state power.
  46. Transnational Corporations (TNC)
    Corporations operating facilities设施 in more than one country; also commonly called multinational corporations (MNCs).
  47. Animal Rights
    an ethical position and social movement that states that nonhuman animals, particularly intelligent mammals, should be granted rights as ethical subjects on par or at least similar to human beings.
  48. Life Cycle Analysis
    the rigorous严密的 analysis of the environmental impacts of a product, service, or object from its point of manufacture all the way to its disposal as waste; also known as cradle摇篮-to-grave assessment评估.
  49. IPAT
    a theoretical formula holding that human Impact is a function of the total Population, its overall Affluence, and its Technology; this provides an alternative formulation to a simple assumption that population alone is proportional to impact.
  50. Desalinization脱盐作用
    a technology that removes salts and other minerals from water, especially sea water; prohibitively过高的 expensive in most contexts, current techniques are highly energy demanding.
  51. Risk Assessment风险评估
    the rigorous application of logic and information to determine the risk – possibility of an undesirable outcome – associated with particular decisions; used to so reach more optimal and rational outcomes.
  52. Risk Communication
    a field of study dedicated to understanding the optimal way to present and convey传递 risk-related information to aid people in reaching optimal and rational outcomes.
  53. Overproduction
    in political economy (and Marxism), a condition in the economy where the capacity of industry to produce goods and services outpaces the needs and capacity to consume, causing economic slowdown and potential socioeconomic crisis.
  54. Monocrop
    a single crop cultivated to exclusion of any other potential harvest.
  55. Columbian Exchange
    the movement of species across the Atlantic Ocean, from the New World to the Old World and vice versa, and the resulting ecological transformations.
  56. Genome基因组
    the complete set of genes of an organism, species, etc.

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