Anatomy Final 2

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susaneers
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55837
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Anatomy Final 2
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2010-12-14 01:22:08
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Anatomy final Guide
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Chapters 6-11 from Study Guide only
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  1. Bone Classification:
    1. Long Bones
    2. Short Bones
    3. Flat Bones
    4. Irregular Bones
    • 1. Long bones: longer than they are wide; consists of a shaft and two endsmost bones in limbs: humerus, femur, tibia, fibula, ulna, radius, phalanges, metacarpals
    • 2. Short bones: typically cube-shaped; sesamoid bone: "sesame seed-shaped"occur in wrist and ankle: tarsals, carpals; coccyx, patella
    • 3. Flat bones: thin, flattened, usually curvedmost cranial bones, ribs, sternum, scapula, clavicle
    • 4. Irregular bones: anything that doesn't fit into the previous categoriesvertebrae, coxal, mandible, sacrum
    • Diaphysis/ epiphyses
    • Articular cartilage
    • Periosteum: two sublayers: superficial layer of dense irregular connective tissue (resists tension), deep layer consisting of osteoblasts and osteoclasts (bone remodeling)
    • Endosteum: covers internal bone surfaces (also osteogenic)
    • Perforating (Sharpey's) fibers: bundles of collagen that connect periosteum to bone matrix
  2. Cranial Bones and Sutures
    • Sutures:
    • 1. Coronal: where parietal meets frontal bone
    • 2. Squamous: where parietal meets temporal
    • 3. Sagittal: where right/left parietal bones meet
    • 4. Lamboid: where parietal meets occipital (resembles greek lambda)
    • 1. Parietal bones (2): most of superior and lateral skull
    • 2. Frontal (1): forehead; contains sinuses
    • 3. Occipital (1): posterior and base of skull
    • 4. Temporal (2): forms inferolateral aspects of skull; contributes to middle cranial fossa; has squamous, mastoid, tympanic, and petrous regions
    • 5. Sphenoid (1): keystone of cranium;
    • 6. Ethmoid (1): forms part of nasal septum and roof and lateral walls of nasal cavity
  3. Facial Bones
    • 1. Mandible (1): The lower jaw
    • 2. Maxilla (2): keystone of the face; upper jaw; hard palate
    • 3. Zygomatic (2): forms cheek and part of orbit
    • 4. Nasal (2): forms bridge of nose
    • 5. Lacrimal (2): form part of the medial orbit wall
    • 6. Palatine (2): forms posterior hard palate
    • 7. Vomer (1): inferior part of nasal septum
    • 8. Inferior nasal concha (2): lateral walls of nasal cavity
    • 9. Auditory ossicles (2): found in ear; malleus, incus, stapes
  4. The Vertebral Column
    • General Characteristics:
    • - 26 bone
    • s- extends from skull to the pelvis
    • - 33 bones in fetus/infant, nine later fuse to become sacrum and coccyx

    • Functions:
    • - main support of the body axis
    • - transmits weight of the trunk to the lower limbs
    • - surrounds and protects spinal cord
    • - provides attachment points for ribs and muscles of the neck and back

    • 5 major regions:
    • - Cervical: 7 vertebrae of the neck
    • - Thoracic: 12 vertebrae
    • - Lumbar: 5 vertebrae that support the lower back become progressively larger from cervical to lumbar regions as weight supported increases
    • - Sacrum: articulates with the hip bones of the pelvis
    • - Coccyx: tailbone

    • S-shaped: cervical and lumbar regions are concave posteriorly, thoracic and sacral curvatures are convex
    • - increase resilience of the spine, allowing it to function like a spring rather than a rod.

    Primary curvatures: thoracic and sacral curvatures are well developed at birth (convex = C-shaped as infant)

    Secondary curvatures: cervical and lumbar, develop during first 2 years of childhood (when baby first holds head up; 3mo. & when baby learns to walk; 1yr)
  5. Thoracic Cage
    • Bony framework of the chest, roughly barrel-shaped.
    • Includes thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, and costal cartilages

    • Functions: protective cage around heart, lungs, other organs.
    • - Supports shoulder girdles and upper limbs
    • - Provides attachment points for muscles of the back, neck, chest, shoulders, and for breathing

    Twelve pairs of ribs, all attach to thoracic vertebrae posteriorly

    True ribs: superior 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum via costal cartilages

    • False ribs: inferior 5 pairs that attach to the sternum indirectly or not at all
    • - Floating ribs: have no anterior attachments
  6. The Pectoral Girdle
    • Shoulder Girdle
    • Consists of clavicle and scapula
    • Along with muscles, form the shoulders
    • - Do not completely encircle the body (scapula do not meet posteriorly)

    • Functions:- attaches upper limb to trunk
    • - provides attachment for muscles that move the limb
    • Must be very light to provide mobility:
    • - only clavicle attaches to the axial skeleton, allowing scapula to move freely across the thorax
    • - socket of shoulder joint (glenoid cavity of scapula) is shallow, allowing unrestricted movement of the humerus
  7. The Pelvic Girdle
    • Hip girdle
    • - attaches lower limbs to the spine
    • - supports the visceral organs of the pelvis
    • attaches to the axial skeleton by some of the strongest ligaments of the body
    • - deep socket secures femur restricting some movement, but provides stability

    • Consists of two hip (coxal) bones
    • During childhood, it consists of three bones: ilium, ischium, and pubis that are fused in adulthood.
    • - At the Y-shaped junction is the acetabulum, a deep hemispherical socket that receives the ball-shaped head of the femur.

    • False (greater) Pelvis: superior to pelvic brim; bounded by alae of iliac bones; part of abdomen and contains abdominal organs
    • True (lesser) Pelvis: lies inferior to the pelvic brin; forms a deep bowl and houses the pelvic organs (reproductive organs)
  8. Summary of Joint Classes
    • Fibrous: adjoining bones united by collagenic fibers
    • 1. Suture (short fibers); immobile
    • 2. Syndesmosis (longer fibers); slightly mobile (amphiarthrosis) and immobile
    • 3. Gomphosis (periodontal ligament); immobile

    • Cartilaginous: adjoining bones united by cartilage
    • 1. Synchondrosis (hyaline cartilage); immobile
    • 2. Symphysis (fibrocartilage); slightly movable

    • Synovial: adjoining bones separated by a joint cavity, covered with articular cartilage, and enclosed within an articular capsule lined with synovial membrane
    • (all freely movable; diarthrosis)
    • 1. Plane
    • 2. Hinge
    • 3. Pivot
    • 4. Condyloid
    • 5. Saddle
    • 6. Ball and Socket
  9. Basic Features of Skeletal Muscle
    • Connective Tissues and Fasciae
    • 1. Epimysium: "overcoat" of dense, irregular connective tissue that surrounds the whole skeletal muscle
    • 2. Perimysium: fibrous connective tissue surrounding groups of skeletal muscle fibers called fascicles
    • 3. Endomysium: fine sheath of loose connective tissue (mainly reticular fibers) surrounding each muscle fiber

    *There is continuity between the sheaths, endomysium is connected to the perimysium, which is connected to the epimysium, which is further connected to the tendon. When the muscles contract, it pulls on these connective tissues and exerts its force to move the bone

    • Nerves and Blood Vessels
    • Each skeletal muscle is supplied by:
    • - one nerve
    • - one artery
    • - one or more veins
    • all of which enter and exit the muscle near the middle of its length
    • - nerves and vessels branch repeatedly, with smallest branches going into individual fibers

    *rich blood supply indicative of high metabolic demands

    • Muscle Attachments
    • The location on a bone where a muscle connects; each muscle extends from one bone to another, crossing at least one movable joint
    • - origin: attachment of the muscle on the less movable or fixed bone
    • - insertion: attachment on the more movable bone (bends bone towards origin)
    • - aponeurosis: a cordlike tendon or flat sheet of connective tissue that attaches the muscle to bone in indirect attachments; usually attached to raised bone markings, ex. tubercles, trochanters, or crests
  10. Rectus Abdominus

    Primary action: flex spine
  11. External Oblique

    Primary action: laterally rotate and flex trunk
  12. Internal oblique

    Primary action: laterally rotate and flex trunk
  13. Transverse abdominis

    Primary action: compress abdomen
  14. Rectus femoris

    Primary action: extend knee; flex thigh at hip
  15. Vastus lateralis

    Primary action: extend knee
  16. Vastus intermedius

    Primary action: extend knee
  17. Vastus medialis

    Primary action: extend knee
  18. Sartorius

    Primary action: flex, abduct, laterally rotate thigh; flex knee
  19. iliopsoas

    Primary action: flex thigh; flex trunk

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