Anatomy Final 4

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Anatomy Final 4
2010-12-14 03:23:31
Anatomy Final

Chapters 21-24 from Study Guide only
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  1. Lymphatic Capillaries and Lymph Nodes
    • Main function is to return excess tissue fluid to blood vascular system
    • Lymphatic vessels collect tissue fluid from loose connective tissue
    • • Carry fluid to great veins in the neck
    • • Fluid flows only toward the heart
    • • Once tissue fluid is within lymphatic vessels it is termed lymph
    • **blockage of lymphatic vessels causes swelling with excess tissue fluid, a condition called edema
    • • Collect excess blood proteins and return them to the blood stream to maintain osmotic balance
    • Lymph capillaries: smallest lymph vessels; first to receive lymph; drain into..
    • Lymphatic collecting vessels: Collect from lymph capillaries; drain into lymph trunks
    • Lymph nodes are scattered along collection vessels
    • Lymph trunks: Collect lymph from collecting vessels; unite to form lymph ducts
    • Lymph ducts: Empty into veins of the neck

    • Lymphatic Capillaries
    • • Receive tissue fluid from CT
    • • Increased volume of tissue fluid
    • • Minivalve flaps open and allow fluid to enter
    • High permeability allows entrance of
    • • Tissue fluid and protein molecules
    • • Also Bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells (lymph nodes help avert the spread of these)

    • Lacteals—specialized lymphatic capillaries
    • • Located in the villi of the small intestines
    • • Receive digested fats
    • • Fatty lymph—chyle
  2. Lymph Nodes
    • •Cleanse the lymph of pathogens
    • •Human body contains around 500

    • Superficial lymph nodes located in
    • • Cervical (along jugular veins and carotid arteries)
    • • Axillary (armpits)
    • • Inguinal regions (superior thigh)

    • Deep nodes are
    • • Tracheobronchial (thoracic viscera), aortic (posterior abdominal wall), and iliac (pelvic organs) lymph nodes
  3. The Pharynx
    • Funnel-shaped passageway
    • • Connects nasal cavity and mouth to larynx and esophagus
    • • Divided into three sections by location:

    • 1. Nasopharynx: Superior to the point where food enters; only an air passageway; closed off during swallowing by uvula
    • Pharyngeal tonsil (adenoids –located on posterior wall)
    • • Destroys entering pathogens
    • • Contains the opening to the pharyngotympanic tube (auditory tube)
    • Tubal tonsil: Provides some protection from infection

    • 2. Oropharynx: Extends from soft palate to the epiglottis
    • • Common passage way for food and air
    • • Two types of tonsils in the oropharynx:
    • 1. Palatine tonsils—in the lateral walls of the fauces
    • 2. Lingual tonsils—covers the posterior surface of the tongue
    • 3. Laryngopharynx: Passageway for both food and air• lies posterior to the epiglottis and extends into the larynx and esophagus
  4. The Larynx

    • Three functions:
    • 1. Voice production
    • 2. Provides an open airway
    • 3. Routes air and food into the proper channels

    • Superior opening is
    • • Closed during swallowing
    • • Open during breathing

    • Cartilages of the Larynx:
    • • Thyroid cartilage: Shield-shaped, forms laryngeal prominence (Adam’s apple)
    • • Cricoid cartilage – shaped like a signet ringThree pairs of small cartilages
    • • Arytenoid cartilages (anchors vocal cords)• Corniculate cartilages
    • • Cuneiform cartilages
    • • Epiglottis – located superior to the opening of larynx, tips inferiorly during swallowing

    • The mucous membrane of larynx is thrown into two folds:
    • 1. Vocal folds (true vocal cords)
    • • Act in sound production
    • • attached to the arytenoid cartilage by vocal ligaments.
    • 2. Vestibular folds (false vocal cords)
    • • No role in sound production
    • • Glottis – Opening between the vocal cords
    • Secondary (lobar) bronchi
    • • Three on the right
    • • Two on the left

    • Tertiary (segmental) bronchi
    • • Branch into each lung segment

    • Bronchioles
    • • Little bronchi, less than 1 mm in diameter

    • Terminal bronchioles
    • • Less than 0.5 mm in diameter
  5. The Stomach
    • Site where food is churned into chyme
    • • Secretion of pepsin begins protein digestion
    • • Functions under acidic conditions
    • • Food remains in stomach approximately 4 hours
    • *water, electrolytes, and some drugs (aspirin and alcohol) are absorbed through the stomach

    • Regions of the stomach:
    • •Cardiac region: ring shaped zone encircling the area near the esophagus
    • •Fundus: stomach's dome
    • •Body: large midportion
    • •Pyloric region: funnel-shaped end composed of antrum and canal
    • • Pyloric sphincter – between stomach and duodenum
    • • Greater curvature – convex left surface
    • • Lesser curvature – concave right surface
    • • The internal surface of the stomach has numerous longitudinal folds called rugae, which flattens as the stomach fills.
  6. Stomach Layers
    • Muscularis has three layers
    • • Circular and longitudinal layers and oblique layer ( helps vigorous churning)
    • • Epithelium is simple columnar epithelium (adapted for secretion)
    • • Mucosa dotted with gastric pits
    • Gastric glands—deep to gastric pits; secretes enzymes
    • Gastric glands of the Fundus and the Body
    • Mucus neck cells: secrete a special type of mucus
    • Parietal (oxyntic) cells: secrete HCl and gastric intrinsic factor (impt for vitamin B12 absorption)
    • Chief (zymogenic) cells: secrete pepsinogen
    • **pepsinogen is activated to pepsin when it encounters acid in the gastric glands

    • pepsinogen --HCl---> pepsin (impt for digestion of protein)
    • **digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth
    • **digestion of proteins begins in the stomach
  7. Small Intestine
    • Modifications for nutrient absorption: increases surface area, forces chyme to move and spiral around, spend more time inside small intestine
    • Circular folds (plicae circulares): transverse ridges of mucosa and submucosa
    • Villi: finger-like projections of the mucosa; covered with simple columnar epithelium
    • Microvilli: further increase surface area for absorption

    • Absorptive cells: Uptake digested nutrients; all along microvilli
    • Goblet cells: secrete mucus that lubricates chyme
    • - CCK (choleocystokinin): hormone produced by duodenum; signals the release of bile/ pancreatic enzymes
    • Enteroendocrine cells: secrete hormones
    • Intestinal crypts: epithelial cells secrete intestinal juice
  8. The Liver
    • Largest gland in the body; performs over 500 functions
    • Digestive function: bile production
    • Performs many metabolic functions
    • Has 4 Lobes: right, left, caudate, quadrate

    • Functions of hepatocytes
    • - Rough ER manufactures blood proteins
    • - Smooth ER produces bile salts, detoxifies poisons
    • - Peroxisomes detoxify poisons (alcohol)
    • - Glycosomes store sugar
    • - Great capacity for regeneration
  9. Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
    • Frontal Section through the kidney
    • - Renal cortex (outer part)
    • - Medulla (inner part, darker brown) contains Renal pyramids
    • - Renal columns: extensions of the cortex, in between pyramids
    • - Renal pelvis: extension of ureters
    • - major calyx branch into minor calyx (both collect urine)
  10. Nephron Structure
    • The functional unit of the kidney (produces urine)
    • Consists of glomerulus and renal tubule
    • Blood --(nephron)-->---(minor calyx)-->--(major calyx)-->--(ureter)-->--(bladder)-->--(urethra)-->Urine

    • Glomerulus: tuft of capillaries (capillaries are fenestrated; allows filtering, large proteins stay in blood)
    • Glomerular (Bowman's) Capsule surrounds glomerulus
    • - parietal layer : simple squamous epithelium
    • - visceral layer : consists of podocytes/pedicles that help make it "leaky"

    Renal corpuscle (glomerulus + capsule)

    Filtrate proceeds to renal tubules from glomerulus

    • Proximal convoluted tubule: 80% of reabsorption occurs here
    • *Thirst triggers pituitary gland to secrete anti-diuretic hormone to make the PCT more porous, allowing more reabsorption
    • Nephron loop (of Henle): descending limb,thin segment, thick segment
    • Distal convoluted tubule:
    • Collecting ducts: retrieve urine from several nephrons; play an important role in conserving body fluids