Theory Final

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Theory Final
2010-12-14 11:54:18
Emergency Care

emergency care study guide
Show Answers:

  1. what is the strange smell noticed by patient before a seizure?
  2. what medication causes gingival hyperplasia?
  3. what is gingival hyperplasia associated with phenytoin meds caused by?
    fibroblasts and osteoblasts depositing excessive extracellular matrix
  4. what determines the severity of phenytoin induced gingival enlargement?
    amount of biofilm
  5. a pt has an acetone, fruity smelling breath, what is this a symptom of?
  6. what is classic symptom of ketoacidosis?
    acetone, fruity smelling breath
  7. what are 3 symptoms of hypoglycemia?
    • headache
    • dizziness
    • hunger
  8. what is contraindicated during emergency management for epileptic seizure
    place tongue depressor between teeth
  9. what are 3 things that will trigger a seizure
    • alcohol or withdrawal
    • lack of sleep
    • stress
  10. name 3 possible complications of diabetes
    • increased susceptibility to infection
    • increased risk of cardiovascular disease
    • increased risk for kidney dysfunction
  11. what is the first step to addressing insulin shock?
    give pt sucrose-juice or cake frosting
  12. what is the most common type of dental emergency associated with a person having diabetes?
  13. what is the type of asthma called that is triggered by an increase in pollen and seasonal allergens?
    allergic, atopic
  14. what type of local anesthetics should be avoided with asthma pts
    epinephrine and levonordefrin
  15. what orally inhaled drug is used to treat acute asthma attacks?
  16. what is a side effect of albuterol?
    dry mouth
  17. what is the first action to take with syncope
    supine position
  18. t/f dizziness is not an early presyncope sign?
  19. what are 3 early presyncope sings?
    • heavy perspiration
    • nausea
    • tachycardia
  20. t/f placing a patient in the supine position is the #1 most important action to take for a patient who has fainted
  21. t/f the possibility of a second syncopal episode is greatest during the post syncope phase
  22. neurologic damage can occur in as little as ___-___ min if a patient remains upright during a syncopal episode
    2-3 minutes
  23. name 2 alterations and adaptations to treatment to prevent or limit syncope
    • determine precipitating factors
    • eliminate factors
  24. what is the most likely cause of a seizure in the dental office?
    local anesthesia overdose
  25. name 4 actions involved in managing a seizure
    • lower chair
    • place pt in supine
    • time seizure
    • let seizure run its course
  26. t/f it is important to use long acting anesthesia on patients with diabetes to keep them out of pain longer
  27. t/f a diabetic patient should eat breakfast prior to their appointment
  28. name 3 treatment contraindications in an asthma attack
    • aspirin
    • nitrous oxide if claustrophobic
    • anesthetic containing bisulfites, epinephrine or levonodefrin
  29. what can happen if you give a pt local anesthesia with epienphrine that is an asthmatic patient and also diabetic or has high blood pressure?
  30. if a pt's asthma attack is not resolving itself after they have used their inhaler and you have administered O2 what should be done next?
    call 911
  31. what is the most common medical emergency in the dental office?
    syncope (Fainting)
  32. name three actions to take for a hyperventilating pt
    • cease treatment
    • place in upright position
    • breathe into cupped hands
  33. name 2 symptoms of hyperventilation
    • rapid deep breathing
    • lightheadedness
    • rapid pulse
  34. name 5 oral health problems associated with a kidney pt on hemodialysis
    • dry mouth
    • halitosis due to excess urea
    • perio disease
    • bone loss/tooth loss
    • mucositis
  35. t/f kidney disease pt often take blood thinners which may cause more bleeding during dental treatment
  36. t/f systemic fluorides should be prescribed for pt with kidney disease
  37. t/f when giving a kidney pt local anesthesia it s best to give them the highest dose possible
    false-lowest dose possible
  38. t/f congestive heart failure is a principal complication of virtually all forms of heart disease
  39. t/f hear failure is more prevalent in women than men
  40. t/f the purpose of the kidneys is to cleanse the urine of toxins
  41. t/f a kindy hemodialysis pt should have dental treament the same day as their dialysis
  42. t/f during a medical emergency involving a cardiac patient the patient should be placed in supine position
  43. t/f the patient's vitals of a cardiac arrest should be monitored every 5 minutes
  44. name 3 treatment adaptations/considerations with a cardiac patient?
    • short appointments
    • morning appointments
    • ensure optimum vital signs
  45. when using local anesthetics with a cardiac patient what should be avoided?
  46. what is the best anesthesia of choice for a cardiac patient
  47. what is the ASA classification for a pt that can climb a flight of stairs without distress?
    ASA I normal
  48. what is the ASA classification for a pt that can climb a flight of stairs without distress but must stop once the task is completed due to distress
    ASA II
  49. what is the ASA class for a patient that can climb a flight of stairs but must stop and rest before completing the task
  50. what is the ASA class for a pt that cannot negotiate a flight of stairs because of shortness of breath or undue fatigue
    ASA IV
  51. what is the ASA class of a pt that is not expected to survive?
    ASA V
  52. what is the most dangerous type of stroke?
  53. it is imperative to always check the blood pressure of a pt with a heart condition why?
    hypertention is the cause of 75% of all cases of heart failure
  54. if your pt exhibits a spike in systolic blood pressure they are at risk for which type of strok?
  55. in a pt with a history of stroke for every ____ mm HG over ____ that blood pressure increases the chances for a _____ stroke go up ____%
    • 10
    • 160
    • hemorrhagic
    • 30
  56. if your pt reports they have recently had a stroke, how long must you wait before doing dental treatment?
    6 months
  57. name three ethnic groups that show higher risk of stroke
    • african americans
    • hispanics
    • native americans
  58. t/f using low dosages of nitrous is acceptable for a pt with a history of stroke
  59. t/f epinephrine and certain anti-anxiety agents shoudl be avoided when treating a pt with a history of stroke
  60. in an emergency a conscious stroke pt is placed in what position? unconscious?
    • upright
    • supine
  61. name a common dental allergen
  62. name the 4 progressive symptoms of an allergic reaction
    • flushing of skin
    • rhinitis
    • hives
    • loss of consciousness/anaphylatic shock
  63. what are the two most important therapeutic agents used in the treatment of anaphylatic shock?
    epinephrine and oxygen
  64. if your hypertensive pt has an allergic reaction, what therapeutic agent is contraindicated? what is an alternative treatment for the pt
    • epinephrine
    • antihistamine or corticosteroids prior to appt
  65. which type of angina emergency would you most likely see in the dental office
  66. symptoms of angina attack may last ___ to ___ minutes
    1 to 15 minutes
  67. t/f if your pt is known to have a pacemaker ultrasonic scaling is contraindicated
  68. t/f a magnetically attached headrest should be removed when working with a cardiac patient with a pacemaker
  69. what is a common medication used for angina pectoris pt
  70. in the SLCC clinic where is the AED located?
    in the 6 pack on the north wall
  71. cardiac arrest may be mistaken for what?
  72. what is the organism that causes tuberculosis
    mycobacterium tuberculosis
  73. what is the type of TB where the organism lays dormant within the body and shows no symptoms called?
    latent TB
  74. how do health care workers determine if latent TB is present
    positive tuberculin skin test (TST)
  75. what are 4 modes of transmission of active TB?
    • coughing
    • sneezing
    • singing
    • speaking
  76. what are three major symptoms of active TB?
    • cough lasting more than 3-4 weeks
    • cough producing blood/sputum
    • chest pain with breathing/coughing
  77. a myocardial infarction is commonly known as?
    heart attack
  78. what is heart attack a common name for?
    myocardial infarction
  79. name 4 uncontrollable risk factors for an MI
    • age
    • obesity
    • gender
    • stress
  80. name 3 emergencies in which you should place the pt in supine position
    • syncope
    • seizure
    • unconsciousness
  81. how are the symptoms of heart attack in women different than men?
    women tend to have chest pain along with sob, nausea, vomiting, neck back and jaw pain
  82. in an event of a heart attack what would help to reduce the patients pain?
    nitroglycerin or aspirin
  83. how long should dental treatment be avoided after a heart attack?
    6 months
  84. name 3 things that will minimize the risk of heart attack during dental treatment
    • nitrous oxide
    • supplemental oxygen
    • pain control
    • stress reduction
  85. name 4 controllable risk factors of hypertension
    • weight
    • activity level
    • diet
    • stress
  86. name 4 possible consequences of a hypertensive crisis (9)
    • stroke
    • heart attack
    • kidney damage
    • memory loss
    • loss of consciousness
    • eye damage
    • blood vessel damage
    • angina
    • fluid in lungs
  87. what type of local anesthesia is indicated for pt with hypertension?
  88. name 4 contraindications to treatment with hypertensive pt?
    • vasoconstrictors in local anesthesia
    • salt water rinses
    • jet polisher
    • sodium bicarbonate rinses or brushing
  89. what is the most common inherited bleeding disorder?
    von willebrand's disease
  90. which common over the counter med can cause thinning of the blood
  91. before treating a pt with hemophilia what should you do?
    have a Dr note confirming treatment can go forward
  92. what does COPD stand for?
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  93. what are two primary diseases that cause COPD
    • emphysema
    • chronic bronchitis
  94. if you pt with COPD is having trouble breathing what can you do to help?
    • sit in comfortable position (upright)
    • have them breath through pursed lips
    • give them low oxygen
    • have them lean elbows on knees and breath
  95. name 2 environmental causes of COPD
    • smoking (1st or 2nd hand)
    • air pollution
  96. in which chair position should you treat your pt with COPD
    semi supine
  97. name 3 contraindications when treating a pt with COPD
    • rubber dam use (claustrophobic)
    • nitrous oxide
    • bilateral mandibular or platal anesthetics
    • barbiturate
    • antihistames
    • high levels of O2
  98. labored breathing is also known as?
  99. what is dyspnea
    labored breathing
  100. what is a contraindication for a hyperventilating pt
    administering oxygen