Card Set Information
emergency care study guide
what is the strange smell noticed by patient before a seizure?
what medication causes gingival hyperplasia?
what is gingival hyperplasia associated with phenytoin meds caused by?
fibroblasts and osteoblasts depositing excessive extracellular matrix
what determines the severity of phenytoin induced gingival enlargement?
amount of biofilm
a pt has an acetone, fruity smelling breath, what is this a symptom of?
what is classic symptom of ketoacidosis?
acetone, fruity smelling breath
what are 3 symptoms of hypoglycemia?
what is contraindicated during emergency management for epileptic seizure
place tongue depressor between teeth
what are 3 things that will trigger a seizure
alcohol or withdrawal
lack of sleep
name 3 possible complications of diabetes
increased susceptibility to infection
increased risk of cardiovascular disease
increased risk for kidney dysfunction
what is the first step to addressing insulin shock?
give pt sucrose-juice or cake frosting
what is the most common type of dental emergency associated with a person having diabetes?
what is the type of asthma called that is triggered by an increase in pollen and seasonal allergens?
what type of local anesthetics should be avoided with asthma pts
epinephrine and levonordefrin
what orally inhaled drug is used to treat acute asthma attacks?
what is a side effect of albuterol?
what is the first action to take with syncope
t/f dizziness is not an early presyncope sign?
what are 3 early presyncope sings?
t/f placing a patient in the supine position is the #1 most important action to take for a patient who has fainted
t/f the possibility of a second syncopal episode is greatest during the post syncope phase
neurologic damage can occur in as little as ___-___ min if a patient remains upright during a syncopal episode
name 2 alterations and adaptations to treatment to prevent or limit syncope
determine precipitating factors
what is the most likely cause of a seizure in the dental office?
local anesthesia overdose
name 4 actions involved in managing a seizure
place pt in supine
let seizure run its course
t/f it is important to use long acting anesthesia on patients with diabetes to keep them out of pain longer
t/f a diabetic patient should eat breakfast prior to their appointment
name 3 treatment contraindications in an asthma attack
nitrous oxide if claustrophobic
anesthetic containing bisulfites, epinephrine or levonodefrin
what can happen if you give a pt local anesthesia with epienphrine that is an asthmatic patient and also diabetic or has high blood pressure?
if a pt's asthma attack is not resolving itself after they have used their inhaler and you have administered O2 what should be done next?
what is the most common medical emergency in the dental office?
name three actions to take for a hyperventilating pt
place in upright position
breathe into cupped hands
name 2 symptoms of hyperventilation
rapid deep breathing
name 5 oral health problems associated with a kidney pt on hemodialysis
halitosis due to excess urea
bone loss/tooth loss
t/f kidney disease pt often take blood thinners which may cause more bleeding during dental treatment
t/f systemic fluorides should be prescribed for pt with kidney disease
t/f when giving a kidney pt local anesthesia it s best to give them the highest dose possible
false-lowest dose possible
t/f congestive heart failure is a principal complication of virtually all forms of heart disease
t/f hear failure is more prevalent in women than men
t/f the purpose of the kidneys is to cleanse the urine of toxins
t/f a kindy hemodialysis pt should have dental treament the same day as their dialysis
t/f during a medical emergency involving a cardiac patient the patient should be placed in supine position
t/f the patient's vitals of a cardiac arrest should be monitored every 5 minutes
name 3 treatment adaptations/considerations with a cardiac patient?
ensure optimum vital signs
when using local anesthetics with a cardiac patient what should be avoided?
what is the best anesthesia of choice for a cardiac patient
what is the ASA classification for a pt that can climb a flight of stairs without distress?
ASA I normal
what is the ASA classification for a pt that can climb a flight of stairs without distress but must stop once the task is completed due to distress
what is the ASA class for a patient that can climb a flight of stairs but must stop and rest before completing the task
what is the ASA class for a pt that cannot negotiate a flight of stairs because of shortness of breath or undue fatigue
what is the ASA class of a pt that is not expected to survive?
what is the most dangerous type of stroke?
it is imperative to always check the blood pressure of a pt with a heart condition why?
hypertention is the cause of 75% of all cases of heart failure
if your pt exhibits a spike in systolic blood pressure they are at risk for which type of strok?
in a pt with a history of stroke for every ____ mm HG over ____ that blood pressure increases the chances for a _____ stroke go up ____%
if your pt reports they have recently had a stroke, how long must you wait before doing dental treatment?
name three ethnic groups that show higher risk of stroke
t/f using low dosages of nitrous is acceptable for a pt with a history of stroke
t/f epinephrine and certain anti-anxiety agents shoudl be avoided when treating a pt with a history of stroke
in an emergency a conscious stroke pt is placed in what position? unconscious?
name a common dental allergen
name the 4 progressive symptoms of an allergic reaction
flushing of skin
loss of consciousness/anaphylatic shock
what are the two most important therapeutic agents used in the treatment of anaphylatic shock?
epinephrine and oxygen
if your hypertensive pt has an allergic reaction, what therapeutic agent is contraindicated? what is an alternative treatment for the pt
antihistamine or corticosteroids prior to appt
which type of angina emergency would you most likely see in the dental office
symptoms of angina attack may last ___ to ___ minutes
1 to 15 minutes
t/f if your pt is known to have a pacemaker ultrasonic scaling is contraindicated
t/f a magnetically attached headrest should be removed when working with a cardiac patient with a pacemaker
what is a common medication used for angina pectoris pt
in the SLCC clinic where is the AED located?
in the 6 pack on the north wall
cardiac arrest may be mistaken for what?
what is the organism that causes tuberculosis
what is the type of TB where the organism lays dormant within the body and shows no symptoms called?
how do health care workers determine if latent TB is present
positive tuberculin skin test (TST)
what are 4 modes of transmission of active TB?
what are three major symptoms of active TB?
cough lasting more than 3-4 weeks
cough producing blood/sputum
chest pain with breathing/coughing
a myocardial infarction is commonly known as?
what is heart attack a common name for?
name 4 uncontrollable risk factors for an MI
name 3 emergencies in which you should place the pt in supine position
how are the symptoms of heart attack in women different than men?
women tend to have chest pain along with sob, nausea, vomiting, neck back and jaw pain
in an event of a heart attack what would help to reduce the patients pain?
nitroglycerin or aspirin
how long should dental treatment be avoided after a heart attack?
name 3 things that will minimize the risk of heart attack during dental treatment
name 4 controllable risk factors of hypertension
name 4 possible consequences of a hypertensive crisis (9)
loss of consciousness
blood vessel damage
fluid in lungs
what type of local anesthesia is indicated for pt with hypertension?
name 4 contraindications to treatment with hypertensive pt?
vasoconstrictors in local anesthesia
salt water rinses
sodium bicarbonate rinses or brushing
what is the most common inherited bleeding disorder?
von willebrand's disease
which common over the counter med can cause thinning of the blood
before treating a pt with hemophilia what should you do?
have a Dr note confirming treatment can go forward
what does COPD stand for?
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
what are two primary diseases that cause COPD
if you pt with COPD is having trouble breathing what can you do to help?
sit in comfortable position (upright)
have them breath through pursed lips
give them low oxygen
have them lean elbows on knees and breath
name 2 environmental causes of COPD
smoking (1st or 2nd hand)
in which chair position should you treat your pt with COPD
name 3 contraindications when treating a pt with COPD
rubber dam use (claustrophobic)
bilateral mandibular or platal anesthetics
high levels of O2
labored breathing is also known as?
what is dyspnea
what is a contraindication for a hyperventilating pt