Biochem Final

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icimmy
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55925
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Biochem Final
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2010-12-14 15:05:06
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Ch 11-19
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  1. Where does light dependent reactions occur?
    • Thylakoid
    • (dark reaction, Calvin cycle)
  2. What occurs in photosystem I?
    Donation of energized electrons to electron carriers in the thylakoid.
  3. What occurs in photosystem II?
    Oxidize water and donate electrons to electron carries that reduce photosystem I
  4. What is the stroma?
    The inner space of the chloroplast
  5. What is the thlyakoid?
    A membrane in the chlorplast
  6. What is the difference between unsaturated and saturated fat?
    • Unsaturated- has double bonds
    • Saturated- no double bonds
  7. What is the difference between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats?
    • mono- 1 double bond
    • poly- multiple double bonds
  8. What is the difference between a essential and nonessential fatty acid?
    • Essential- obtained through diet
    • Nonessential- made by the body
  9. What is an ester?
    Formed by reactions between an acid and an alcohol with elimination of water
  10. What is the difference between a glycolipid and sphingolipid?
    • glyco- no phosphate
    • sphingo- have phophate
  11. What is an isoprenoid?
    repeating 5 carbon unit
  12. What is a terpene and a monoterpene?
    • 5 repeating carbon from plants
    • 2 five repeating carbons
  13. What are the 4 classes of lipoproteins?
    • Chylomycrons - very large and low density, transport intestine to adipose
    • VLDL- transport lipids to tissues
    • LDL- carry cholesterol to tissue
    • HLD - scavenge excess cholesterol esters
  14. What is passive transport?
    • requires no energy
    • Simple and facilitated diffusion
  15. What is the difference of simple and facilitated diffusion?
    • simple- no carrier
    • facilitated- has protein carrier
  16. What does active transport require?
    ATP
  17. What is a ketone?
    Results of excess acetyl-CoA
  18. What does bile (made in the liver) do?
    Emulsifies fat
  19. What is photophosphorlation?
    Making ATP in the presence of light
  20. What is photorespiration?
    use of Oxygen instead of CO2
  21. What is a compensation point?
    rates of CO2 fixation and release are equal
  22. What is nitrogen fixation?
    Nitrogen gas being converted into a form usable by plants
  23. What is kwashiorkor?
    Prolonged protein deficiency
  24. What is transamination?
    converting alpha amino acid to alpha keto acid
  25. What is an alkaloid?
    Nitrogen containing chemical found in plants
  26. What is a monomer?
    a simple compound that combine to make a polymer
  27. What is a nucleotide?
    DNA or RNA monomer unit
  28. What is a nucleoside?
    Nucleotide without phosphate
  29. What is the difference between a pyrimidine and a purine?
    • Pyrimidine- 1 nitrogen base
    • Purine- 2 nitrogen base
  30. What is difference between ammotontelic, Ureotelic, and Uricotelic?
    • Ammotontelic- released in the sea
    • Ureotelic- converted to urea (mammals)
    • Uricotelic- coverted to uric acid
  31. What is the difference between ketogenic and glucogenic?
    • AA is degraded to
    • (keto) acetyl-CoA or acetoacetyl-CoA
    • (gluco) pyruvate or a TCA cycle
  32. What is phenyketoneuria (PKU) result in?
    over accumulation of phenylaline
  33. What is alkaptoneuria a result of?
    deficiency in homogentisate oxidase
  34. What is albinism a result of?
    lack of tyrosinase, thus melanin is not produced
  35. What is the function of the small intestine?
    digestion of nutrients so they are small enough to be absorbed
  36. What is the liver play a key role in?
    Carbohydrates, lipids, and AA metabolism
  37. What is the function of the adipose tissue?
    storage of energy in the form of TAGs
  38. What is the function of the brain?
    Directs most metabolic activity
  39. What is the function of the kidney?
    Filtration of blood plasma
  40. What is chromatin?
    Partially decondensed chromosomes
  41. What is B, A and Z form DNA?
    • B- Right handed, Most common, Longest
    • A- right handed
    • Z- left handed
  42. What did Watson and Crick discover in 1953?
    DNA structure
  43. What are the 4 types of Xenobiotics?
    • Base analogues- transition mutation
    • Alkylating agents- liable to alkalation
    • Nonalkylating agents- deaminates bases, mutagenic and prevent base pairing
    • Intercalating agents- Frame shift mutation
  44. What is the difference between transversion and transition mutation?
    • Transistion is purine to purine or pyrimindine to pyrimindine.
    • Transversion is purine to pyrimindine
  45. What is a centromere?
    AT rich, forms kinetochore which interacts with spindles fibers during cell division
  46. What is a telomere?
    CCCA repeats at the end of DNA that postpone loss of coding on replication
  47. What is the difference in size of a bacteria genome and the human genome?
    • Human- billions of bases
    • Bacteria- millions of bases

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