Biotech Final

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Biotech Final
2010-12-14 17:20:39


Ch 8-11
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  1. What are the 5 areas of marine research?
    • Identify bioactive compounds produced by marine organisms
    • Understanding environmental factors, nutritional requirements, and genetic factors that control the production of primary and secondary metabolites
    • Improve health, reproduction, growth, and cultivation of marine organism
    • Developing bioremediation tools
  2. What is the use of Aquaculture?
    • Maintain populations of endangered marine organisms
    • Marketable marine organisms
  3. What are the 2 ways of making triploids?
    • Diploid with a haploid
    • Tetraploide with diploid
  4. What affects marine animal health?
    Protozoans, Bacteria, Virus and Fungi
  5. How does biotechnology help marine animal health?
    • Early disease detection
    • Development and applying new antibiotics
    • Development of pathogen free animals
  6. What are the 3 types of algae?
    Green, Red, Brown
  7. What are the benefits of marine organisms to agriculture?
    • Cyanobacteria (dried flakes) used as fertilizers
    • Valuable genes
  8. What methods are available to create transgenic fish?
    • Electroporation (shock to open membrane)
    • Microinjection
    • Injection through Micropyle
  9. What is the most studied fish?
    Salmon and catfish
  10. What are the environmental concerns for transgenic fish?
  11. What are 2 goals of genomics?
    • Assembly of physical and genetic maps of genomes of different organisms.
    • Find location and explain genes
  12. What are the four categories of genetic disorder?
    • Single-gene disorders
    • Multi-gene disorders
    • Mitochondrial
    • Chromosome abnormalities
  13. What should be considered for a disease to be a candidate for gene therapy?
    Caused by single, well studied and understood gene.
  14. What are vectors?
    Anything that carries DNA into a cell
  15. What are the types of viral vectors?
    Retrovirus, Adenovirus, adeno-associated virus
  16. What are the nonviral vectors?
    Electroporation, microinjections, biolistics, liposomes
  17. What are several types of clinical trials?
    • Diagnostic- identifies better tests for diagnosis
    • Treatment- tests new therapies and drugs
    • Prevention- ways to prevent disease
    • Quality of life- improve well being of chronically ill
    • Screening- detect specific diseases
  18. What are the different types of stem cells?
    • Embroyonic- before differentiation
    • Fetal- some differentiation
    • Umbilical cord blood cell- Multipotent
    • Adult- Multipotent
  19. What is VNTR used for?
  20. What is the method of choice for DNA typing?
  21. What are the uses of RFLP?
    Forensics, Screening for diseases
  22. What is single nucleotide polymorphism?
    • Most are nucleotide substitution
    • Detect mutations