EHS

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Author:
fredrick_briley
ID:
56029
Filename:
EHS
Updated:
2010-12-14 20:59:34
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enviornmental health
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Final Study Guide
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  1. Where does staph live?
    • Staphlococcus aureus
    • Bacteria
    • Skin to skin
    • Towels
    • Razors
    • Equipment
    • Uniforms
    • Keyboards
  2. What is the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act?
    • Became a law in December 2007
    • Official name is HR6-303 to 309 Title XVI Pool and Spa Safety
    • Protection from Entrapment
    • Requires for suction outlets and drain covers
  3. Germ Resistance to Chlorine
    • E. Coli << 1 Minute
    • Hepatitis A ~ 16 minutes
    • Giardia ~ 45 minutes
    • Crypto 15,300 minutes
    • CT Value = CxT
    • C=concentration of free cholorine
    • T=time in minutes
    • 1ppm (1mg/L cholrine, pH 7.5)
    • 25 degrees C or 77 degrees F
  4. What is a protozoan?
    • one celled organism
    • both male and female
    • found in soil and water enviornments
    • some have the ability to form a cyst
    • natural protection from extreme temperatures and chemicals
    • can live outside a host
  5. What is bacteria?
    • microscopic
    • single celled organisms
    • can live above the boiling point and in cold that would freeze your blood
    • have existed for many many years
  6. What is RWI
    Recreational water illness
  7. Disease organisms causing RWI
    • Cryptosporidium parvum - protozoan
    • Norovirus - group of viruses
    • Shigella - bacteria
    • E. coli 0157:H7 - bacteria
    • Giardia lamblia - protozoan
  8. MRSA
    • overuse of antibiotics
    • antibiotics in food and water
    • germ mutation
    • contact sports
    • health care workers
    • Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    • Presence in hospitals & long term care facilities
    • Start as little red bumps
    • Abcesses
    • May burrow deep into the body
  9. Dangers of staph infections
    • flesh eating bacteria
    • Pneumonia
    • Bone/joint/blood infections
    • notifiable in some states, not KY
    • CA MRSA -community acquired methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus
  10. Prevent MRSA Exposure
    • keep your hand clean
    • keep cuts, bruises and scrapes covered
    • avoid contact with other wounds, and bandages
    • dont share personalized items like razors or towels
  11. Bed Bugs are...
    • Nocurnal insects
    • Cimex lectularius
    • Live on blood from humans or other warm blooded hosts
    • brown/reddish on color
    • can go without feeding for 1 year
  12. Facts about bed bugs
    • Adult bedbugs are 1/4 inch long
    • oval, flattened bodies
    • easily mistaken for ticks, fleas, and cockroaches
  13. Results of bedbug bites
    • skin welts, rash, irritation caused by bites
    • infestations can cause stree, anxiety, and embarrassment
    • although the can harbor pathogens, there is little evidence to support disease transmission
  14. Hair salon risks
    • folliculitis
    • barbers itch
    • infection may spread or return
    • aviod contaminated clothing and towels
    • avoid friction from clothing
    • keep utensils and area clean
    • avoid shaving
    • avoid pericures right after shaving
  15. Nail Salons
    • Onychomycosis
    • Fungal nail infections
    • avoid unclean utensils and pedicure tubs at nail salons
    • avoid false nails if possible
    • wash hands throughly
    • soak nails in vinegar or tea tree oil
    • seek medical care
  16. What is terrorism
    premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience
  17. Terrorism is...
    • Premeditated
    • Planned in advance
    • Political - not criminal
    • Aimed at civilians
    • carried out by subnational groups
  18. Terrorist Attack Characteristics
    • evidence at a crime scene must be secured by the authorities
    • paranoia
    • heightened security
  19. Where are terrorist events most likely to occour
    • federal buildings
    • military bases
    • heavily populated areas
    • borders or passageways
  20. What types of agents are used in terrorism
    • nuclear
    • biological
    • chemical
  21. What kind of materials are stored at Blue Grass Army Depot?
    • Rockets
    • Explosive components
    • Rocket Propellant
    • Point Detonating Fuse
    • Igniter
    • Bursters
    • Nerve agents (10lbs)
  22. Typs of chemical agents
    • Neurotoxins - nerve agents
    • chemical asphyziants - blood agents
    • repiratory agents - choking agents
    • skin and eye irritants - blister agents, vesicants
  23. How are those materials stored?
    • Igloos
    • 49 total
    • 45 w/ chemical weapons
    • 523 tons
  24. What is Bioterrorism
    the intentional release of viruses, bateria, or their toxins for the purpose of harming or killing civilians, according to the U.S. CDC
  25. What kind of Biological Agent might cause problems?
    • Plague
    • Used in pneumonic phase
    • spreads quickly from person to person
    • airborne droplets
  26. Potential Biological Agents
    • Anthrax - Bacillus anthracis ~ inhalation
    • Cholera - Vibro Cholerae ~ ingestion
    • Bubonic Plague - Yersinia pestis ~ aerosol
    • Tularemia - Francisella tularensis ~ inhalation
  27. Category A Agents
    • easily disseminated/transmitted from person~person
    • result in high mortality rates
    • potential for major public health impact
    • require special action for public health preparedness
    • Anthrex
    • Botulism
    • Plague
    • Smallpox
    • Tularemia
    • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
  28. Category B Agents
    • Moderately esay to disseminate
    • Moderate morbidity rates and low mortality rates
    • Require specific enhancements of CDC diagnostic capacity and dnhanced disease surveillance
    • Q Fever
    • Ricinus Communis(castor beans)
    • Food safety threats(salmonella, E. Coli)
  29. Category C Agents
    • Emerging Pathogens
    • Availability
    • Ease of production and dissemination
    • Potential for major high morbidity and mortality rates
    • potential for major health impact
    • Hantavirus
  30. Water Supply Network
    • watershed
    • raq,untreated reservoir where whater gathers
    • delivery to treatment facility
    • purification
    • transmission from treatment to storage
    • distribution to consumption
  31. Water Treatment
    • coagulation
    • sedimentation
    • filtration
    • disinfection
    • storage
    • distribution
  32. What kinds of agents affect our food?
    • Biological
    • Chemical
    • Physical
  33. What is foor-borne illness?
    • caused by the ingestion of contamintaed food
    • often referred to as food borne disease or illness
  34. Biological agents
    • living thins that cause disease such as viruses bacteria, fungi, and protozoa
    • salmonella is a pathogenic bacteria
    • pathogenic bacteria is most common
  35. Chemical Agents
    • substances that cause disease because their ability to produce chemical reactions within the body
    • Pesticides and heavy metals are chemical agents
  36. Physical Agents do harm by...
    • damaging body cells
    • (radiation in high doses can be a physical agent)
  37. How do we protect our food?
    • Pest Management
    • Food Inspections
    • Food Safety
  38. CDC tracks how many illnesses?
    9
  39. How many illnesses exists?
    more than 250
  40. What are the types?
    • Pathogenic bacteria
    • Viruses
    • Parasites
    • Natural Toxins
    • Prions
  41. Which food borne organisms are tracked through FoodNet?
    • Bacteria:
    • Campylobacter
    • Escherichia coli O157 & non-O157
    • Listeria monocytogenes
    • Salmonella
    • Shigella
    • Vibrio
    • Yersiniaenterocolitica
    • Parasites:
    • Cryptosporidium
    • Cyclospora
  42. What is Salmonella?
    • Salmonellosis
    • Symptoms within 12-72 hours
    • Diarrhea, fever, cramps
    • Symptoms last for 4-7 days
    • Many different serotypes
    • Salmonella Typhimurium & Salmonella Enteritidis are most common
  43. What is E. Coli?
    • Escherichia coli (E. Coli)
    • 0157:H7
    • 3-4 days beforesymptoms occur
    • Found in the large intestine
    • Gram-negative bacteria
    • Cattle can have it and look healthy
    • Transmission is by oral- fecal route
    • Diarrhea, cramps, vomiting
    • Most recover in 5- 10 days
  44. E. Coli and HUS
    • HUS (hemolytic uremic syndrome)
    • Hemorrhagic diarrhea
    • Destroys red blood cells
    • Kidneys failī‚¤50% mortality rate in children < 5 yrs
  45. How do we reduce expoure to E. Coli?
    • Cook all meet througholy
    • Do not drink unpasturized milk and juices
    • Wash hands
    • choose resurantes carefully
  46. What is Campylobacteriosis
    • Campylobacter jejuni
    • Gram-negativebacteria
    • Most commonly identified food-borne infection internationally
    • Found mostly in poultry who are asymptomatic
    • Also in cattle and sheep
  47. What is CJD
    • Classic Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakobdisease (cCJD)
    • Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakobdisease (vCJD)
    • Acquired form
    • Prions
    • No real cure
    • Treatments vary
    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad cow' disease)
  48. CJD
    • Recognized since 1996
    • First seen in the United Kingdom
    • Caused by a modified form of prion protein
    • Median age of death = 28 years
    • Average duration = 14 months
    • Related to 1993 epidemic of BSE
  49. Conditions for bacterial growth in food
    • Acidity (4.0-9.0pH)
    • Time - bacteria double about every 15 minutes
    • Temperature - 41-140 degrees F
    • Oxygen
    • Moisture
  50. pH Scale of Acids(0-14)
    • Somach Acids - 1
    • Lemon Juice - 2
    • Vinegar - 3
  51. pH of Natural Pure Water
    7
  52. pH of Bases(0-14)
    • Tums - 10
    • Ammonia - 11
    • Drano - 13
  53. Items with a pH of 4.0-9.0
    • soda - 4
    • Rainwater - 5
    • Milk - 6
    • Water - 7
    • Egg Whites - 8
    • Baking Soda - 9
  54. What is Giardia?
    • Giardia lamblia
    • Protozoan
    • Travelers’ diarrhea
    • Beaver Fever
    • Parasitic cysts in stools
    • Routes of infection (fecal oral, person to person)
  55. What is Cryptosporidiosis?
    • Cryptosporidium parvum
    • Parasitic
    • Highly resistant to disinfection
    • Lakes, streams, rivers
    • Diarrhea, nausea, and/or stomach cramp
    • Notifiable
    • U.S. cases > 3,000 in 2002
    • KY cases very small
  56. Temperature of Cooked Foods
    • Steaks and Roasts - 145 F
    • Fish - 145 F
    • Pork - 160 F
    • Ground Beef - 160 F
    • Egg Dishes - 160 F
    • Chicken Breasts - 165 F
    • Whole Poultry - 165F

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