Card Set Information
Name the three parts of a nucleotide.
sugar molecule, phosphate, a nitrogen base
What are James Watson and Frances Crick known for?
they discovered the DNA structure
3 ways RNA differs from DNA
RNA= ribose, single strand, uracil
Each organism has a unique combination of characteristics encoded in the molecules of _______.
When does replication occur?
during interphase, prior to cell divison
What is the anticodon that would link up with the mRNA sequence AAU?
In what part of the cell does DNA replication occur?
Where does transcription take place within the cell?
at a region of DNA
Replication and transcription are under the control of what?
A group of three bases that signals the end of a chain of amino acids is a _____ codon.
When replication occurs, what causes the DNA to "unzip"? What bonds are broken? Where do these bonds exist within the DNA molecule?
Enzymes break the hydrogen bonds. They are located inbetween base pairs.
How many different amino acids are there in living organisms?
Carries instructions to ribosomes on how to build proteins
Cytosine and thymine belong to this chemical group
DNA unzips by breaking these
Site of protein synthesis
3 bases on tRNA that link up with a codon on mRNA.
A change in the sequence of nucleotides within a gene.
A segement of a chromosome breaks off and then reattaches in reverse orientation to the same chromosome.
A segment of a DNA that breaks off a chromosome. As a result, all the info. on that part of the chromosome may be lost.
In an unequal crossover, one chromosome receieves an extra duplicate piece from its homologous partner.
An inherited condition in which only one sex chromosome (an X chromosome) is present in cells.
Inherited condition in which the affected individual is a sterile male with an XXY karyotype.
Agents that cause mutations to occur.
Non-sex cells; body cells
The failure of chromatids or chromosomes to separate during cell division.
A chromosome piece breaks off and reattaches to another, homologous chromosome.
An organism is homozygous if__________________.
it has two identical alleles for a trait
The study of what you inherit is called ________.
Neither member of a pair of contrasting alleles is completely expressed when the other is present
The insertion of a needle to remove some fluid from around the embryo to examine for genetic defects is called ________.
A tiny camera is inserted through a small incision in the uterus.
High frequency sound waves bounce off the fetus forming an image. The image is called a sonogram.
Who determines the sex of the offspring?
Another name for "bleeder's disease"
Trait that deals with multiple alleles
What chromosome are sex-linked disorders generally associated with?
The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called _______.
Two sex-linked disorders:
muscular dystrophy, hemophilia
What kind of mutations occur in sex cells and are passed on to offspring?
What kind of mutations occur in body cells and are passed on to daughter cells by mitosis?
A genetic disorder that involves trisomy
A group of genes located on one chromosome
What is the exchange of alleles between homologous chromosomes.
Two genetic disorders that are examples of a single gene disorder:
cystic fibrosis, sickle-cell anemia
Eye color and skin color are controlled by two or more genes so they are called ___________ traits.
A person that has the genotype XXY would suffer from what genetic disorder?
A person who has the genotype XO would have what genetic disorder?
What type of cross deals with only one hybrid trait?