Psy 3082 Final

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Psy 3082 Final
2010-12-14 21:31:31
Psy neuroscience

Unit 3 Part 1
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  1. What is Cognitive Control? Under what circumstances is it particularly important to use control?
    The executive system is a theorized cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes. It is also referred to as the executive function, executive functions, supervisory attentional system, or cognitive control.
  2. Describe the FAS-
    Generate sequence of words beginning with a specified letter (F,A,S) in one minute.
  3. Wisconsin Card Sort task-
    patients given card that can be sorted by a number of rules (shape, number color). Rules changes so patients must adjust their response. patients with lesions to Pre-frontal cortex don't do good.
  4. Stroop tasks-
    Response interference from naming the ink color of a written color name.
  5. What is response conflict?
    A situation in which a prepotent incorrect response needs to be overcome to perfrom a task succesfully.
  6. What is the ERN-
    Error related negativity: An electrical potential that can be detected at the scalp when an error is made. Found in EEG scalp recordings.
  7. Consolidation-
    The process by which moment-to-moment changes in the brain activity are translated into permanent structural changes in the brain.
  8. Retrieval-
    Ventral PFC: initial retrieval and sustained maintenance of information... Left VLPFC: Verbal information ... Right VLPFC: Nonverbal/Spatial Information.
  9. Working memory (WM) -
    A system for the temporary storage and manipulation of information vs.
  10. Long-term memory (LTM)-
    memory for information that is stored but need not be consciously accessible; it has an essentially unlimited capacity.
  11. Chunking, rehearsal and their relationship to capacity and duration of WM

    What is articulatory suppression-
    silently mouthing words while performing some other task (typically a memory task) and what does it tell us about how verbal WM is maintained?
  12. Which PFC and posterior regions are involved in verbal WM? In non-verbal/spatial WM?
    Ventral PFC: initial retrieval and sustained maintenance of information... Left VLPFC: Verbal information ... Right VLPFC: Nonverbal/Spatial Information
  13. What part of the prefrontal cortex is more important for maintenance of information in working memory?
    Ventral PFC: initial retrieval and sustained maintenance of information
  14. Which is more important for the manipulation of information in working memory?
    Dorsal PFC: manipulation of information (comparison, grouping) AND monitoring whether information meets task goals
  15. What are the basic differences between Declarative (Explicit) Memory-
    Memories that can be consciously accessed. (skills/habits)
  16. Nondeclarative (Implicit)-
    Memories that cannot be consciously processed (perceptual priming, non-proceduaral)
  17. Memory in terms of how they are tested, the neural regions involved and conscious awareness associated with retrieval

    …between different types of declarative memory: Episodic-
    Memory of specific events in ones own life
  18. Semantic Memory-
    conceptually-based knowledge about the world, including knowledge of people, places, the meaning of objects and words.
  19. …between different types of Priming (Perceptual vs. Conceptual) -
    priming refers to the fact that information is easier to access if it has recently been encountered.
  20. …between different types of Procedural Memory (Skills vs. Habits) -
    Skills is playing an instrument, hibits is more of a pattern.
  21. What is LTP (generally speaking)?
    Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): a cellular molecular mechanism by which a connection between neurons is “strengthened”Strengthening = increase in the probability that a post-synaptic neuron will fire an action potential in response to neurotransmitters released by a pre-synaptic neuron (“lowered threshold”)
  22. What are the 3 primary characteristics of amnesia due to medial temporal lobe damage?
    1. Impaired encoding into long-term declarative memory but no problem with working memory2. Impaired retrieval of memories encoded right before damage, but not encoded more “remotely”3. Impaired declarative memory (explicit) but not non-declarative memory (implicit)
  23. What is the difference between Anterograde -
    Memory for events that have occurred after brain damage
  24. Retrograde amnesia -
    memory for events that occurred before brian damage
  25. What is Ribot’s law?
    The observation that memories early in life tend to be preserved in amnesia.
  26. How does the temporal gradient of amnesia after hippocampal damage differ from the gradient in patients with semantic dementia? What brain area is affected in semantic dementia?
    Semantic dementia patents show a reverse temporal gradient from that found in amnesics with Alzheimer's disease. evidence of a time -limited role of hippocampus in memory consolidation.
  27. What is Source Monitoring?
    The process by which retrieved memories are attributed
  28. What are False Memories?
    Memories that are partly or wholly inaccurate but accepted as real by the person doing the remembering.
  29. What are Confabulations?
    retrieval of false information that sometimes doesn’t make sense without intention to lie in order to create an autobiographical narrative. “honest lying” from damage to ventromedial frontal regions
  30. What type of brain damage would be most likely to cause deficits in source monitoring? Or to cause confabulations?
    Damage to the ventromedial frontal and orbitofrontal regions.
  31. Medial temporal lobe (MTL) and hippocampus -
    Encode, store & retrieve.
  32. Basal ganglia -
    Procedural learning.
  33. Prefrontal cortex -