The Chemistry of Fire
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Characteristics of Distillates MS
- Bell shaped curves
- equal peak separation
- least refined of all petroleum products
What are the 3 categories of petroleum distillates?
Characteristics of Gasoline MS
- high aromatics content
- low abundance of alkanes
- xylene trios w/ 1:2:1 ratio
Neat: wider range covered, with more intense peaks, closer to start of x axis
25% evaporated: more narrow range and shorter peaks than neat, close to start
99% evaporated: less intense peaks, towards middle of x axis
MS characteristics of Isoparaffinic products
- distinct, narrow range products
- abundant alkanes w/o n-alkanes pattern
narrow and intense peaks squash together
MS characteristics of Aromatic products
- distinct, narrow range compounds
- more narrow than isoparaffinic products
MS characteristics of N-Alkane products
- simple patterns
- notable lack of everything but straight chain alkanes
- cleaner and less complicated than distillates
- only a handful of peaks
MS characteristics of Naphthenic/ Paraffinic products
- cyclo and iso alkanes (rings and branched alkanes)
- gaussian distribution
- unresolved baseline
What are the four conditions required for a fire?
- oxidizing agent
- uninhibited chemical chain reaction
temperature at which sufficient vapors are given off to form an ignitable mixture with air
temperature at which burning is self-sustained after the removal of an ignition source
temperature at which a fuel must be heated before it spontaneously combusts
What are the stages of fire?
- fully developed
______ is the process of all the materials in a room reaching their ignition temperature at the same time
_____ is the chemical breakdown of larger molecules to smaller molecules in the absence of oxygen
What are the three methods of heat transfer?
_______ is the passage of heat from one material to another by direct contact
______ is the transfer of heat through a gas or a liquid
______ is the transfer of heat through electromagnetic waves
What are 3 factors that can affect the fire and its spread?
- presence/absence of suppression
- fuel load
What is an accelerant?
any fuel or oxidizing used to initiate a fire or increase the rate of growth or speed the spread of fire
T/F: Alkylation is a process opposite that of cracking.
T/F: High octane gasoline is produced via cracking.
False! It is produced via alkylation
Alkylation and catalytic cracking are both ___-thermic.
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