Political Science 333

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csordner
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56114
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Political Science 333
Updated:
2010-12-14 22:44:37
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Final
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Human rights, terrorism, NGOs Copenhagen consensus,Environment
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  1. state centric view
    States are not and never have been the only international actors.
  2. transnational relation
    regular interactions across national boundaries when at least one actor is a non-state agent or does not operate on behalf of a national government or an intergovernmental organization
  3. types of transnational nonstate actor
    • 1. Multinational Corporations
    • 2. Drug cartels, terrorists, arms traders, money launderer, human trafficker, etc (un-civil society)
    • 3. Non-Governmental Organizations, INGOs, and other advocacy actors (civil society)
  4. differences of transnational nonstate actors and state
    non-state actors lack sovereign control over population and territory

    NGOs and other non-state actors are not created by states. They are created by private citizens
  5. authority of nonstate actor
    • 1. Multinational corporations (for profit, commerce, market authority)
    • 2. Non-governmental organizations and advocacy actors(not-for-profit, service and advocacy, moral authority), global civil society
    • 3. Drug cartels, terrorists, arms traders, trackers (illicit, violent authority)
  6. INGO
    non profit, open membership organization that is not connected to any government and active in at least 3 states
  7. human right
    any right protected in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN); focus on basic political, civil, economic, social, and cultural right
  8. terrorism over time
    maybe more dangerous than the past
  9. What is terrorism
    • Premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience
    • Title 22 of the United States Code, Section 2656f(d))
  10. What is meant by State terrorism
    replaces sub-national groups or clandestine agents with governments.
  11. characteristics of terrorist attacks - religious group
    religious groups more deadly, more likely to produce wide spread injuries
  12. Terrorism is a result of bargaining failure
  13. Most terrorist attacks are not deadly
  14. Most terrorist attacks are not by religious groups
  15. reasons why terrorists not irrational
    People choose to become a terrorist to advance their personal goals

    Sometimes even random choice of targets is part of a strategy
  16. strategic logic of terrorist
    • 1. Typically face a much larger majority that does not share their beliefs
    • 2. It is dicult for extremists to convince others to share their views
    • 3. Can't typically use framing to get people to accept their viewpoint/interests
    • INSTEAD: USE VIOLENCE TO COERCE CONCESSIONS / ALTER STATUS QUO
  17. terrorists as extremist
    • They are politically weak relative to the demands they make
    • Extremists have interests that are not widely shared by other
  18. terrorism network
    terrorists form networks of small, self-contained cells - no interest in disseminating info

    Networked organization limits consequences of information leakage.
  19. strategic logic of suicide terrorist
    1. Part of cluster of effects, not isolated or random - used to get goals, stop when achieve goal

    2. Specifically designed to coerce modern democracies to make concessions to national self-determination

    3. Terrorists have learned that it pays

    4. Moderate suicide terrorism pays the most

    5. How to reduce suicide attacks? - reduce condence in the ability to carryout the attack
  20. historical suicide attackers
    Zealots and Sicarii (Romans); Assassins (Sunni, Persian andCrusader states
  21. terrorist attacks as bargaining failure
    Lack of information, credibility, and indivisibility of the dollar
  22. IRA has disarmed in effort to gain credibility; however lacks funding
  23. strategies of terrorism
    coercion, provocation, spoiling, outbidding
  24. Coersion
    attrition and intimidation
  25. elements of coersion
    Target is uncertain about group's capabilities or resolve

    Group attacks to make its demands credible

    Attack is a form of costly signaling
  26. Example of Spoiling
    Oslo peace accords 1993 (Arafat seen as strong, attacks, Hamas wins next election), Iran kidnapping in 1979

    (Iran prime minister and US national security adviser met 3days prior)
  27. Example of outbidding
    Fatah v. Hamas, Peru in 1970s - Shining Path(assassinations)
  28. Example of Provocation
    ETA - Spain always responded to attacks withrepression against Basque community

    9/11, Palestinian attacks on Israel
  29. Example of Coersion
    • Colonizing forces -against the Brits - Greeks, Jews in Palestine
    • Recent examples: 9/11, Sunni/Shiite attacks on US in Iraq,ETA attacks (bomb scares)
    • Hamas -1990
  30. What are the best response to Coercion
    • Retaliation - precisely targeted
    • Harden targets
    • deny weapon- nukes and chemicals
  31. best response to Provocation
    • as little collateral damage as possible
    • isolate terrorists from sympathizers or potential sympathizers HARD to do!
    • superior intelligence! language
  32. best response to Spoiling
    Strategies that build trust and reduce vulnerability are, therefore, the best response to spoiling
  33. best response to Outbidding
    encourage groups to consolidate

    grant concessions to nonviolent group (or less-violent group) -Peru
  34. most of the time, 1 strategy is not totally at work -groups can chose an action that involves multiple strategies groups can change their strategy over time
  35. economic externalities to terrorism crackdown
    economic externalities equals better terrorism

    Israeli crackdowns have hurt economic opportunities, increased support to extremist Palestinian groups

    Again, calls for further intelligence, calculated efforts designed to just respond to terrorists - requires better intelligence/ technology
  36. crackdowns and quality of terrorist
    might raise costs but also increases the likelihood that terrorist attempt is successful
  37. NNGOs
    Northern Based NGO: an NGO based in an industrial democracy Mainly thought of as global in focus
  38. Conclusion of research so far - best way to deter terrorism
    defensive measures + demographic separation
  39. SNGOs
    • Southern Based NGO: an NGO based in a developing country, usually thought of as not a consolidated democracy
    • Mainly thought of as domestic (domestic NGO) or regional in focus
  40. INGOs with a Focus on.......
    Human Rights, Environment,Development, or Health
  41. SNGOs are actually receiving money from donor agencies or, more commonly............
    NNGOs who contract with them tocarry out projects
  42. norm life cycle
    1. Actors attempt to convince an important population to accept and embrace their belief

    2. The norm becomes a near universal standard of behavior Prior to being internalized, norms are enforced by the moral disapproval of others or by sanctions

    3. The norm is internalized
  43. boomerang pattern
    domestic NGOs in one state activate transnational linkages to bring pressure from other states to bear on their own government
  44. critiques to boomerang pattern
    a state vulnerable to pressure from below - democracy or lots of INGOs involved domestically

    a state vulnerable to pressure from above - trade, exports,foreign aid or moral vulnerability (international attention)
  45. Human Rights INGOs improved human rights because................
    vulnerability of the state and international & domestic support
  46. Critiques to INGOs / Boomerang Model
    • whose interests are they working for?
    • their own private gains?

    • Western biases?
    • are they really connected to domestic populations
  47. Copenhagen consensus
    More than 55 international economists and political science, including 5 Nobel Laureates, assessed more than 50 problems and solutions to world problems
  48. NGOs work best when aid IS..........
    what domestic populations actually want
  49. Big Point of the Copenhagen Consensus
    Getting economic, environment, and governance preconditions right (attention to human rights) helps mitigate international and civil conict, including terrorism
  50. characteristics of human rights
    1 Are universal the birth right of all human beings  not granted by the state (country)

    2 Focus on the inherent dignity and equal worth of all human beings

    3 Are equal, indivisible and interdependent

    4 Have been internationally guaranteed and are legally protected (to be talked about next)

    5 Provide a means to ensure accountability, including for non-governmental actors
  51. major international human rights documents
    • 1 UN Charter (1945)
    • 2 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) - non binding
    • 3 International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966)
    • 4 International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights(1966) - US has signed but never ratify
    • *last three often referred to as International Bill of Rights
  52. US and Convention on the Rights of the Child
    US not a party, with Somalia -WHY?
  53. derogability
    These are rights that can be taken away in times of emergency
  54. What rights are considered non-derogable
    right from life

    right to be free from torture, slavery, free from retroactive appeal
  55. generations of rights
    • Political and Civil Rights,
    • Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, and.....
    • Solidarity (Environmental) Rights (3 generations)
  56. incapacity and human rights violations
    • often the case for economic, social and cultural rights(positive rights) - examples: state has little money, can'tprovide right to education
    • also: can lack the capacity to control political agents -example: Mexico - lacked the capacity to train and controlprison guards committing torture
  57. strategic logic of human rights violations
    • States try to repress their populations (commit human rights violations) to prevent:
    • protests challenges to a regime
    • dissent at the international or domestic level
    • these protests can be either violent or nonviolent
  58. big determinants of human rights violation
    • 1. dictatorships and unstable democracies more murder in the middle
    • in dictatorships: when there are multi parties
    • 2. lower GDP per capita - Why?
    • 3. international and civil war civil war typically has the greatest effect
  59. why states sign human rights treaties - 3 categories of states
    • moral / philosophical motivations
    • to try to get more international aid
    • after a regime change - legitimacy
    • after a war to try to get into a international organization - EU
  60. social camouage states
  61. Three types of states in regards to human rights
    • 1. Sincere ratifiers- Netherlands, Costa Rica
    • 2. False negatives- US
    • 3. False positives- Burundi, Uzbekistan, Cambodi
  62. reasons why states comply with human rights law
    • 1. When have lots of INGOs active within their borders
    • 2. When not politically unstable
  63. International Criminal Court
    International Criminal Court, entered into force in 2002, created by Rome Statutes, 1998

    Can act only if national authority has not
  64. types of goods and environmental problems
    • Excludable- Private Good- Club Good
    • Non-excludable- Common Good, Pool resource- Public Good

    nonrival- ones consumption does not affect the welfare of others
  65. externalities
    costs or benefits for others than the person making the decision (purchasing the good)
  66. common pool resources
    • non excludable but rival in consumption:
    • hard to exclude someone but their consumption
    • hurts your consumption
    • lots of natural resources: sh, whale, wildlife
  67. number of actors and environmental cooperation
    smaller number of actors - easier to get cooperation (can monitor and punish those that don't comply)
  68. issue linkage and environmental cooperation
    Groups that interact frequently on other issues (linkage) orthat interact repeatedly (iteration) are more successful
  69. privileged groups and environmental cooperation
    Some groups might have a very strong preference for the public good: a privileged group

    A privileged group is composed of one or a few actors whoreceive benets themselves from the public good. This groupis willing to bear the cost of providing that good for everyone
  70. soft law/ hard law
    many international environmental institutions started out as soft law - norms of behavior without teeth or clear cutwritten standard

    become hard law to have formal monitoring mechanisms: Montreal Protocol (1987/89) - 50% cuts in CFC
  71. WMDs
    Weapons of Mass Destruction

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