MedT Ch. 18

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llinderl
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56120
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MedT Ch. 18
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2010-12-14 22:56:29
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HLHS 101: Ch. 18 Endocrine System
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  1. outer section (cortex) of each adrenal gland; secretes cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones
    adrenal cortex
  2. inner section (medulla) of each adrenal gland; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
    adrenal medulla
  3. lacated in the lower abdomen of a female; responsible for egg production and estrogen and progesterone secretion
    ovaries
  4. located behind the stomach. Islet (alpha & beta) cells (islets of Langerhans) secrete hormones
    pancreas
  5. four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland
    parathyroid glands
  6. located at the base of the brain in the sella turcica; composed of an anterior lobe and a posterior lobe
    pituitary gland (hypophysis)
  7. two glands enclosed in the scrotal sac of a male; responsible for sperm production and testosterone secretion
    testes
  8. located in the neck on either side of the trachea; secretes thyroxine
    thyroid gland
  9. secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure
    adrenaline (epinephrine)
  10. secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates the adrenal cortex
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  11. secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases salt (sodium) reabsorption
    adosterone
  12. male homrone secreted by the testes and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex; testosterone is an example
    androgen
  13. secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; increases reabsorption of water by the kidney
    antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
  14. secreted by the thyroid gland; decreases blood calcium levels
    calcitonin
  15. secreted by the adrenal cortex; increases blood sugar; secreted in times of stress and has an anti-inflammatory effect
    cortisol
  16. secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure and dilates airways (sympathomimetic); part of body's "fight or flight" reaction
    epinephrine (adrenaline)
  17. estrogen (female hormone) secreted by the ovaries
    estradiol
  18. female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex; ex: estradiol and estrone
    estrogen
  19. secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates hormone secretion and egg production by the ovaries and sperm production by the testes
    follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
  20. secreted by alpha islet cells of the pancrea; increases blood sugar by conversion of glycogen (starch) to glucose
    glucagon
  21. secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates growth of bones and soft tissue
    growth hormone (GH); somatotropin
  22. secreted by beta islet cells; helps glucose to pass into cells and promotes conversion of glucose to glycogen
    insulin
  23. secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates ovulation in females nad testosterone secretion in males
    luteinizing hormone (LH)
  24. secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure (sympathomimetic); parent compound from which another is derived (epinephrine)
    norepinephrine
  25. secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates contraction of the uterus during labor and childbirth
    oxytocin (OT)
  26. secreted by the parathyroid glands; increases blood calcium
    parathormone (PTH)
  27. secreted by the ovaries; prepares the uterus for pregnancy
    progesterone
  28. secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes milk secretion
    prolactin (PRL)
  29. secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; growth hormone
    somatotropin (STH)
  30. male hormone secreted by the testes
    testosterone
  31. secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; acts on the thyroid gland to promote its functioning
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); thyrotropin
  32. secreted by the thyroid gland; increases metabolism in cells; also called tetraiodothyronine
    thyroxine (T4)
  33. secreted by the thyroid gland; increase metabolism in cells
    triiodothyronine (T3)
  34. secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    vasopressin
  35. hormones derived from an amino acid and secreted by the adrenal medulla
    catecholamines
  36. hormones (steroids) produced by the adrenal cortex
    corticosteroids
  37. mineral salt found in the blood and tissues and necessary for proper functioning of cells; include K, Na, Ca
    electrolyte
  38. steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates glucose, fat, and protein metabolism
    glucocoticoid
  39. tendency of an organism to maintain a constant internal environment
    homeostasis
  40. substance, secreted by an endocrine gland, that travels through the blood to a distant organ or gland where it influences the structure of function of that organ or gland
    hormone
  41. region of the brain lying below the thalamus and above the pituitary gland; secretes releasing factors and hormones that affect the pituitary gland
    hypothalamus
  42. steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex to regulate mineral salts (electrolytes) and water balance in teh body
    mineralocorticoid
  43. cullular or nuclear protein that binds to a hormone so that a response can be elicited
    receptor
  44. cavity in the skull that contains the pituitary gland
    sella turcica
  45. steroid (adrogens and estrogens) produced by the adrenal cortex to influence male and female sexual characteristics
    sex hormones
  46. complex substance related to fats (derived from a sterol, such as cholesterol), and of which many hormones are made
    steroid
  47. pertaining to mimicking or copying the effect of the sympathetic nervous system
    sympathomimetic
  48. cells of an organ that affected or stimulated by specific hormones
    target tissue
  49. aden/o
    gland
  50. adren/o, adrenal/o
    adrenal gland
  51. gonad/o
    sex glands (ovaries and testes)
  52. pancreat/o
    pancreas
  53. parathyroid/o
    parathyroid gland
  54. pituitar/o
    pituitary gland
  55. thyr/o, thyroid/o
    thyroid gland
  56. andr/o
    male
  57. calc/o, calci/o
    calcium
  58. cortic/o
    cortex, outer region
  59. crin/o
    secrete
  60. dips/o
    thirst
  61. estr/o
    female
  62. gluc/o
    sugar
  63. glyc/o
    sugar
  64. home/o
    sameness
  65. hormon/o
    hormone
  66. kal/i
    potassium
  67. lact/o
    milk
  68. myx/o
    mucus
  69. natr/o
    sodium
  70. phys/o
    growing
  71. somat/o
    body
  72. ster/o
    solid structure
  73. toc/o
    childbirth
  74. toxic/o
    position
  75. ur/o
    urine
  76. -agon
    assemble, gather together
  77. -emia
    blood condition
  78. -in, -ine
    a substance
  79. -tropin
    stimulating the function of (to turn or act on)
  80. -uria
    urine condition
  81. eu-
    good, normal
  82. hyper-
    excessive, above
  83. hypo-
    deficient; below, under; less than normal
  84. oxy-
    rapid, sharp, acid
  85. pan-
    all
  86. tetra-
    four
  87. tri-
    three
  88. overactivity of the thyroid gland; thyrotoxicosis; Graves Disease
    hyperthyroidism
  89. underactivity of the thyroid gland; myxedema=adult; cretinism=childhood
    hypothyroidism
  90. cancer of the thyroid gland
    thyroid carcinoma
  91. excessive production of parathormone
    hyperparathyroidism
  92. deficient production of parathyroid hormone
    hypoparathyroidism
  93. excessive secretion of adrenal androgens
    adrenal virilism
  94. group of signs and symptoms produced by excess cortisol from the adrenal cortex
    Cushing syndrome
  95. hypofunctioning of the adrenal cortex
    Addison disease
  96. benign tumor of the adrenal medulla; tumor cells stain a dark or dusky color; produce excess epinephrine & norepinephrine
    pheochromocytoma
  97. excess secretion of insulin causing hypoglycemia
    hyperinsulinism
  98. lack of insulin secretion or resistance of insulin in promoting sugar, starch, and fat metabolism in cells
    diabetes mellitus (DM)
  99. DM: autoimmune disease; early childhood onset; complete deficiency of insulin; ketoacidosis often occurs
    Type 1 diabetes
  100. DM: insulin resistance; older onset; obesity; metabolic syndrome
    Type 2 diabetes
  101. hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary after puberty, leading to enlargement of extremities
    acromegaly
  102. hypersecretion of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary before puberty, leading to abnormal overgrowth of body tissues
    gigantism
  103. congenital hyposecretion of growth hormone; hypopituitary dwarfism
    dwarfism
  104. deficiency of all pituitary hormones
    panhypopituitarism
  105. excessive secretion of antidiuretic hormone
    syndrome of inappropriate ADH (SIADH)
  106. insufficient secretion of antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)
    diabetes insipidus (DI)
  107. also known as fasting blood sugar test; measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 8 hours; can diagnose diabetes and pre-diabetes
    fasting plasma glucose (FPG)
  108. measurement of hormones, electrolytes, glucose, and other substances in serum (blood) and urine as indicators of endocrine function
    serum and urine tests
  109. measurement of T3, T4, and TSH in the bloodstream
    thyroid function tests
  110. measurement of eyeball protrusion (as in Graves disease) with an exophthalmometer
    exophthalmometry
  111. x-ray imaging of endocrine glands in cross section and other views, to assess size and infiltration by tumor
    CT scan
  112. magnetic waves produce images of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to locate abnormalities
    MRI
  113. radioactive iodine is administered orally, and its uptake by the thyroid gland is imaged to assess thyroid function
    radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) scan
  114. scanner detects radioactivity and visualizes the thyroid gland after intravenous administration of a radioactive (technetium) compound
    thyroid scan
  115. sound waves show images of endocrine organs
    ultrasound examination

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