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Leadership Styles (4)
Considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible.
The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input.
Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations.
The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments.
Leadership is where the manager manages “by the book" very thing must be done according to procedure or policy.
If it isn’t covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her.
This manager is really more of a police officer than a leader, he or she enforces the rules.
It is called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making.
The manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities.
This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision.
This leadership style can produce high quality/quantity work for long periods of time.
Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, team spirit, and high morale.
Leadership style is also known as the “hands-off¨ style.
It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible.
All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own.
Pursues goals and objectives through the concerted action of groups of people.
Identifies what an organization does and for whom.
The ultimate purpose for which it was created, the criterion for assessing the long-term effectiveness of an organization.
The future state or condition that, if achieved, contributes to the fulfillment of an organization’s mission.
The stages of accomplishment that are to be achieved to gauge the short term process of an organization toward its goals; more specific and concrete than goals, they outline what must go right to achieve the mission.
The formal grouping of people and jobs.
The assignment of work to people; as the size of the community increases, the workload expands.
Police organizations are divided into groups according to the similarity of types of police service they perform, the groups are called.
BUREAUS, (i.e. Detective, Operations, Support)
The primary vehicle/backbone for achieving the Police mission.
Most of a Police Department’s BUDGET is used to support.
Patrol Officers are distributed throughout a city according to a.
Officers are assigned to units with specific responsibilities so there is no.
DUPLICATION of effort
LINES OF AUTHORITY are definite and direct.
Gives an organization CONTROL, and ensures that EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION takes place so that officers understand their roles in relationship to the organization and each other.
The CHAIN OF COMMAND
The process of identifying immediate and potential needs; determining the availability of resources, and formulating a course of action likely to achieve organizational objectives.
Deciding in advance what must be done, who will do it, when they will do it, and what equipment they’ll need and are often classified according to their purpose.
Guides personnel in recurring and routine situations.
Plans for dealing with the daily behavior of employees, they are strict and specific.
RULES & REGULATIONS
Outlines operational plans and how to do things.
Designates the type of work done by a Division or Unit.
Deals with non routine issues or rarely occurring police emergencies.
The process of formally categorizing, structuring, rearranging, and coordinating employees, authority , and communication responsibilities. It is the outgrowth of PLANNING.
The most common type of Organizational Structure.
LINE & STAFF
Personnel functions of recruiting, selecting, training and assigning personnel; determining the right person for the right job.
The day to day guiding, coaching, counseling, and influencing people towards task accomplishment. Exercising CONTROL over the quality of work performed.
The orderly arrangement of group effort to provide unity of action in accomplishing Goals and Objectives.
Gathering information in order to be informed as to what is going on in the department and transferring this information to subordinates.
The process of developing and managing an organization’s financial resources.
Acronym for the seven functions of Management.
An art to, a practice in which KNOWLEDGE and SKILLS are acquired through a balanced combination of EXPERIENCE, EDUCATION, and OBSERVATION; systematically applied in an effort to realize a desired result.
The number of subordinates a person can effectively manage and control.
SPAN OF CONTROL
The turning over or ENTRUSTING of one’s work (and the formal AUTHORITY to do it) to another while remaining responsible for its completion.
Requires the assignment of work to the LOWEST level capable of getting it done, which allows managers to increase their time more efficiently and effectively.
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
The arrangement of managers, supervisors, and subordinates so that each person in the organization is under the direct supervision of one person and reports only to that one person.
UNITY OF COMMAND
The transfer of information, attitudes, and understanding between individuals or groups.
Encourage subordinates towards self discipline and train them on methods that will improve their job performance.
Should be used only when POSITIVE DISCIPLINE has FAILED to make a PO conform to Departmental standards in behavior or job performance.
Punitive action designed to DISCOURAGE, CORRECT, or REFORM a subordinate and DETER others from similar actions.
Based on the principle that PO’s should have an opportunity to correct their mistakes before stringent punishment is applied.
A a step by step process, repeated offenses should receive progressively stronger penalties.
Steps in the progressive discipline process:
- Oral Warning
- Documented Counseling
- Oral Reprimand
- Written Reprimand
- Suspension with Pay
A manager must be certain when disciplining subordinates:
Gather facts and analyze all factors concerning both the SITUATION and the SUBORDINATE.
PUNISHMENT is fairly applied and consistent with other penalties for like offenses, judging each case on its own merits.
PUNISHMENT is DEFINITE (as a deterrent to others), and quickly follows the offense.
Give REPRIMAND in private.
Incident is completely and accurately DOCUMENTED.
The channels of authority and responsibility extend in a direct line from the CEO to those involved at the level of execution.
Combines special units with line organization approach. In this kind of structure, line commanders receive advice and help from special units, but do not receive commands or orders.
This approach is widely used.
Line and Staff Organization
Based on or influenced by personal feelings, tastes, or opinions.
Not influenced by personal feelings or opinions; to attain or accomplish; purpose; goal; target.
A problem solving device and usually involves an exchange of ideas, attitudes, and knowledge among persons with a common problem. It must be well planned and effectively directed by a conference leader.
The form of police service that directly attempts to eliminate the opportunity for misconduct. Nevertheless, when misconduct occurs, patrol is immediately available to: investigate; arrest offenders; collect evidence; and recover stolen property.
Designed to promote the quality of living throughout the community. Its principle is to assign two or three officers to specified communities. They serve as a liaison to governmental agencies to rectify and improve the overall quality of the communities. Officers have complete autonomy in decision making and other aspects of their duties.
Most officers do not see this as ‘real’ police work, since little time is focused on the ‘crime fighting.’ An overall misconception of the true focus of patrol function, which should be public order or peacekeeping.
COMMUNITY ORIENTED POLICING
The facts obtained support the complaint
Evidence indicates that the act complained of, actually occurred but was legal, proper, and necessary.
The act complained of, did not occur.
There is insufficient evidence or there are material conflicts in the evidence. Thus, the case must be resolved in favor of the accused employee.
From the point of view of the employee, an unfortunate by-product of the investigation is uncovering misconduct that is not part of the original complaint.
Misconduct not based on the complaint
A form of training that has its objectives the changing of attitudes improvement of skills, and imparting knowledge. It may be viewed positive or negative.
The correction of inadequacies without punishment.
Consists of punishment and is usually applicable when positive methods of training have been tried, but have failed to achieve the desired conformity.
Communications should go upward and downward through established channels. If a supervisor is bypassed by a directive going downward and has no official knowledge of it, he or she is unable to contribute to the accomplishment of such directive and cannot be held responsible for its enforcement.
Chain of Command
A primary objective of a supervisor is ‘to get the job done through people’ - Both authority and responsibility must be delegated in equal amounts.
Note: a supervisor may delegate tasks and assignments, but the ultimate responsibility for completion of the task rests with the supervisor.
Responsibility can not be delegated.
Frisk on less than Probable Cause
Cleveland detective observed three men about to rob a store they were casing. Detectives stopped the men and frisked them by external patting; a gun was found on the man, and was arrested.
Terry vs. Ohio (1968) - “Terry Search”
If a person is sought by the police is in the home of a third person, the police can enter the home only if they can show exigent circumstances, consent, or a search warrant.
Otherwise, it is violation of the third party’s constitutional rights for which the police may be held civilly liable.
Arrest in a Third Party Residence
The general rule to Crime Scene Searches is, “Get a Search Warrant.” Exceptions are:
Defendant is a trespasser
Conducted for the purpose of finding a dead or injured crime victims or rendering aid to the victim, no warrant is required.
Evidence is being protected or photographed during the time it takes to obtain a Search Warrant, no warrant is required to enter the crime scene.
No warrant is required to enter the crime scene in order to find a perpetrator who may still be present on the scene.
Crime Scene Searches
If the defendant flees into his home or home of a third party after committing a crime, the police may enter without a warrant to make an arrest. But if the police knock on the door and the defendant opens the door, then flees into the home when he sees police, this is not hot pursuit.
Are based on reasonable cause that any of the following conditions are present:
There is danger to the life or safety of the officer or another.
The defendant may escape.
Evidence may be damaged, destroyed, or concealed.
Response to an emergency
Stands for the rule that if a police officer , during the course of a reasonable intrusion, sees evidence or contraband in plain view, mat be seized. The officer must be in a place where he has a lawful right to be when he makes the observation.
Plain view Doctrine
Supreme Court held that no warrant was required to search an arrested person’s clothing 10 hours after the arrest was made and while the defendant was still in custody.
It is also used by the courts to justify searches of vehicles and searches based on third party consent.
If the arrest is lawful, then the search is authorized.
This ‘Bright Line’ rule even applies when there are no exigent circumstances such as danger to police or danger to evidence (United States v. Robinson).
Search Incident To A Lawful Arrest
Unreasonable Search & Seizure - Prohibits the use of evidence obtained through the use of an illegal search and seizure.
This is the Federal Exclusionary Rule, which bars the use of evidence unconstitutionally seized by Federal Law Enforcement Officials.
Frames spelled out the law of the land, although it did not provide sufficient protection for individuals against power and might of the newly Federal republic. This lack of protection for individuals led to the first ten amendments (Bill of Rights) to the Constitution.
Bill of Rights served as protection only against action of the new Federal Government. It was not applicable to against actions of the individual State Governments. Over the years, by way of the Fourteenth Amendment of the Constitution, Supreme Court has decreed that all protection also operate to protect individuals from unconstitutional acts of Federal, State or Local Governments.
An interchange of views and ides between two or more persons.
The primary purpose is to obtain or impart information or to influence attitudes of behavior.
The purpose is to obtain information, not give out information.
Psychologist Abraham Maslow assumed that people are motivated by unmet needs. When a person’s need for something is not met, the person feels driven, or motivated , to meet that need.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Giving people incentives that cause them to act in desired ways.
1. Identify the Problem
2. Identify alternative solutions
3. Gather and Organize Facts
4. Evaluate the Alternatives
5. Choose and Implement the best Alternative
6. Get feedback and take Corrective Action
The Model of Decision Making (Problem Solving)
The practice of imposing penalties for failure to adequately carry out responsibilities and giving rewards for success
Set of objectives for what they are to accomplish; their performance is then measured against those objectives.
MBO - Management by Objectives
Raise employee awareness of multi-culturalism and help reduce such barriers to prejudice and stereotypes.
Preconceived judgment about an individual or group.
As an unfair or inequitable treatment based on prejudice.
Generalized, fixed images we hold of others.
Characteristics of individuals that shape their identities and the experiences they have in society.
Racial, Cultural, Ethnic, Age, Gender and others are welcomed and considered a strength in an organization today.
How are supervisors responsible to higher management, employees, and co-workers.
Are responsible for doing the work assigned to them by higher management and for keeping management informed of the department’s progress.
They link higher management to the employees.
Responsible for treating employees fairly, making instructions clear, and bringing employees concerns to higher management.
Responsible for empowering and enabling employees instead of focusing on command and control.
Cooperating with other co-workers in other departments.
Organizations hold supervisors accountable for meeting these various responsibilities.
Supervisors can benefit from a greater variety of talents and viewpoints, but also requires them to draw on more sophisticated HR skills than in the past.
Diversity of the Workforce
Describe the basic types of supervisory skills.
Technical - Specialized know ledged and experience used to carry out procedures.
Human Relations - Enables the supervisor to work effectively with other people.
Conceptual - Enables the supervisor to see the relations of the parts as a whole and to one another.
Decision Making - Needed to analyze information and reach good decisions.
A manager at the first level of management.
The employees reporting to the supervisor are not themselves managers.