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Who was considered the first "real" scientist?
What branches of science does astrobiology pull from?
Astronomy, Planetary Science, and Biology
How are Auroraes created (the northern and southern lights)
Trapped solar particles escape the magnetic field, travel down the magnetic field lines to impact the Earth's atmosphere. The colliding of these particles absorb energy and create a glow of light.
How is the magnetic dynamo created?
The liquid internal layer (outer core), convection and both being metallic, making electricity and rapidly rotating.
How old is the earth?
About 4.0 billion years old!
What are the three ways scientists analyze rocks?
- Mineralogical analysis: Identifying the minerals in a rock.
- Chemical Analysis: Identifying the elements or molecules in a rock
- Isotopic analysis: Figuring out the relative amounts of isotopes of a particular atom in a rock.
What are and describe the three types of rocks on Earth
- Igneous: molten material cools and solidifies
- Metemorphic: Forms under high pressure and temperatures but only when they're not quite able to melt the rock.
- Sedimentry: flow compression of sediment into layers.
How does the magnetic field of Earth protect us?
It protected our surface and atmosphere from harmful particles that blow off the Sun (solar winds)
What is the role of volcanoes on Earth?
They played a role in creating the oceans and the atmosphere.
What are the three kinds of energy?
Kinetic, potential, radiative
Note: Energy can change for, but the total amount of energy in the Universe cannot change (Law of concervation of energy).
How are molecules formed?
Two or more atoms joined by a chemical bond.
What are isotopes?
Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
How do you calculate the atomic mass of an atom?
Add the protons and neutrons of the atom.
What is an atomic number?
The number of protons in an atom
What are the main chemicals found on Jovian Planets?
- Hydrogen, Helium and Hydrogen.
- The colors are formed by different gases forming clouds at particular tempreratures.
- The stripes are bands of wind blowing across the tops of the atmosphere in opposite directions.
What are the 4 Terrestrial planets? and what are they made of?
- -Venus, Mercury, Earth, Mars.
- -They're made up of mostly metal and rock
What does our solar system consist of?
8 planets (4 rocky terrestrial planets, 4 large gaseous, jovian worlds)
Terrestrial planets are closest to the sun, Gasous planets are on the outer part of the Solar System.
Three reasons why the Big Bang theory is correct?
1. Edwin Hubble observed that all galaxies are rapidly flying apart from each other.
2. Some of the energy from the big bang is left over even today and we can actually see it!
3. The theory makes predictions of how much Hydrogen, helium, lithium etc there should be in the Universe and these predictions agree with what we actually have seen in the Universe.
How do scientists determine the size of the universe?
By measuring the expansion rate of the Universe, therefor the Universe is about 13.7 billion years old.
What is the Big Bang Theory?
The universe began as one single point of intense heat and energy and began expanding from that point. As it grew larger, it cooled off. allowing matter to form out of some of the energy.
What is Andromeda?
The closest galaxy to the Milky Way Galaxy
The distance a ray of light can travel in one year is called...?
A light year...
What is the nearest star system to Earth?
Alpha Centauri (40 trill KM or 266,000 AU)
What is the size of our Universe?
30 AU or 4.5 billion km
After the Sun what is the next biggest object in the solar system?
Gas Planets (outer solar system) then rocky terrestrial planets who are very small and low in mass.
What is the succession of size in the universe? (smallest to largest)
- Planet>Solar System>
- Star>Galaxy (Milky Way)> Star cluster>Galaxy Group>Local Group>Galaxy cluster>Super Clusters>Voids
Which planet did Einstein's theory of relativity help discover?
Mercury, Newton was almost right, except under this very specific condition.
Which planet was discovered making a prediction using Newton's laws of gravity?
- F=force of gravity between two objects
- G=gravitational constant=6.67x10^-11
- M,m=mass of two objects
- R=distance between two objects